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Kidney Failure : Causes, Symptoms & Management

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Kidney Failure : Causes, Symptoms & Management

Dr Vinay Sakhuja
Director-Nephrology & Transplant Medicine

The main function of the kidneys is to eliminate excess fluid and waste material from the blood. When the kidneys lose this filtering ability, dangerous levels of fluid and waste accumulate in the body leading to a condition known as kidney or renal failure. This may be due to various factors including infections, autoimmune diseases, Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension and kidney stones. Kidney failure usually occurs in the late stages of the disease processes. Once kidney failure occurs, it requires immediate management and even then prognosis is often not satisfactory unless kidney transplantation is done.

Know the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for kidney failure


  • Reduced Urine Output
  • Generalized Swelling of the body
  • Blood in the urine
  • Increased fatigue and tiredness
  • Nocutria (increased frequency of urination at night)
  • Vomiting, oedema and high blood pressure
  • Loss of appetite


Urine examination is done to determine the presence of protein, sugar, casts and crystals , pH and specific gravity and the quantity of sodium. Blood tests includes tests of renal function like :

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Serum Creatinine
  • Serum electrolytes
  • Creatinine clearance or more commonly, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), an important index of renal function used to estimate the level of kidney function in CKD patients.


  • Drug Therapy
  • Dialysis
  • Surgery