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Hypertension

Home >> Nephrology >> Hypertension

Clinical Directorate

Overview

Hypertension or High blood pressure is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries increases. This requires the heart to work harder than usual to circulate blood through the blood vessels. Blood pressure is determined by two measurements, systolic and diastolic, which depend on whether the heart muscle is contracting (systole) or relaxing between beats (diastole). Hypertension usually does not cause symptoms initially, but sustained hypertension over time is a major risk factor for hypertensive heart disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease, and chronic kidney disease.

Hypertension refers to high blood pressure which may lead to many other symptoms. Blood pressure is the measurement of the force against the walls of your arteries as your heart pumps blood through your body. Hypertension is known to be a cause of chronic kidney disease.

  • Normal blood pressure is when your blood pressure is lower than 120/80 mmHg most of the time
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) is when your blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg or above most of the time
  • If your blood pressure numbers are 120/80 or higher, but below 140/90, it is called pre-hypertension

The symptoms of high blood pressure include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Confusion
  • Nosebleeds

Causes

There are various factors responsible for high blood pressure such as:

  • Obesity
  • Stress or anxious
  • Smoke
  • Diabetes
  • Pregnancy
  • Eating too much salt in your diet

Treatment

There is no exact cure of hypertension and the objective of treatment is to reduce blood pressure so that you have a lower risk of complications. You can do many thing to keep your blood pressure under control:

  • Regular exercise
  • Reduce stress
  • Quit smoking
  • Less consumption of salt
  • Eat a heart-healthy diet