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Lung Cancer

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Clinical Directorate


Lung cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in the lungs. Lung cancer may eventually spread to other parts of the body if not discovered and treated early. The most common factors that can cause lung cancer are exposure to radon, asbestos, air pollution, certain chemicals in the workplace;smoking or passive smoking;or family history of lung cancer.

Lung cancer is of two types:

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Small cell lung cancer

There are several treatment options available for lung cancer such as Surgery, Conventional Chemotherapy, Targeted agents and Immunotherapy and Radiation therapy. 



Causes of lung cancer

Lung cancer is considered as the most severe type of cancer for both men and women. Cigarette smoking is found to be the major cause of lung cancer. Other causes may include:

  • High levels of air pollution
  • Family history of lung cancer
  • Radon gas
  • Radiation therapy to the lungs
  • Secondhand smoke
  • Exposure to cancer-causing chemicals

Symptoms of lung cancer include:

  • Chest pain
  • Cough that doesn't go away
  • Coughing up blood
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing

Risk Factors are:

  • Smoking or passive smoking
  • Exposure to radon, asbestos, air pollution, certain chemicals in the workplace
  • Family history of lung cancer


  • Surgery – Diagnostic surgery is done to obtain tissue for pathologic diagnosis of cancer. It includes Trucut Biopsy and incisional or excisional biopsy. In most cases of initial-stage non-small cell lung cancer, lobectomy (removal of a lobe of lung) is the most preferred surgical option. In rare cases, pneunmonectomy (removal of the entire lung) is done.
  • Chemotherapy – This option is often used when the cancer has spread outside the lungs.
  • Radiation Therapy – Radiotherapy is often done along with chemotherapy. Radiation therapy involves the use of high energy X Rays that destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. About half of all people with cancer are treated with radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with other types of cancer treatment. There are mainly three types of radiation therapy done at Max Cancer Centre to treat cancer – 3DCRT (three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy), IMRT, and IGRT (image-guided radiation therapy). At Max, we use the most advanced NOVALIS TX with EXACT-TRAC & ROBOTIC ON-BOARD IMAGER which is used to track tumors online to enable highly accurate treatments for moving tumors like lung, liver, prostate etc.