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Obesity

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Clinical Directorate

Obesity refers to the excess amount of fat stored in the body. It is also known as overweight which means weighing too much. A person may be overweight from extra muscle, bone, or water, as well as from having too much fat. Obesity is generally not a disease but is known to be a major cause for the onset of various other diseases. Not only a major causes of other diseases, obesity sometimes makes it really difficult for the people to carry out their daily activities like washing, walking, bathing, running, lifting etc. Therefore, it should be treated at the earliest to ensure minimal damage.

Signs and Symptoms

Higher BMI (Body Mass Index) - A calculation to know your weight in relation to your height. It is the most commonly used formula to determine your grade of obesity. It is calculated by the following formula.

BMI= Weight (in kgs) / Height (m) * Height (m)

Causes of Obesity

There could be various reasons behind the rise of obesity. Let's take a look at few of them

  • Inactive lifestyle - The way you live your life defines your obesity level. People who are inactive are more likely to gain weight because they don't burn the calories that they take in from food and drinks.
  • Genes and family history
  • Age
  • Pregnancy
  • Lack of sleep
  • Smoking
  • Medicines
  • Health conditions

Treatment

The most basic treatment of obesity is to make healthy changes to your lifestyle such as increasing your physical activity, consuming low calorie food, less stress, etc. Medicines and weight-loss surgeries are options to be considered when lifestyle changes do not prove enough.

Obesity (Weight Loss) procedures

Laparoscopic Gastric Sleeve –

  • This is a procedure in which the stomach is converted into a long sleeve.
  • The stomach is stapled along its length and is converted to a reduced volume of about 100-150 ml.
  • This surgery is simple and is associated with low morbidity and known for rapid recovery.
  • It is performed as a staged procedure in patients with BMI >60 Kg/m2 or as a primary procedure in patients with low BMI.

Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass –

  • It is a procedure both restrictive and mal-absorptive.
  • In this, stapling creates a small stomach pouch (15-20 ml) which forms the restrictive element.
  • The outlet from this newly formed pouch empties directly into the lower portion of the small intestine, thus bypassing a certain length of the intestine.
  • This forms the mal-absorptive element, as no absorption occurs in the segment of the intestine bypassed.
  • This surgery is more effective in inducing weight loss.
  • Other major advantages are significant improvement and even cure of diseases like Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome.

Laparoscopic Gastric Banding –

  • This is a procedure done by placing a band in the upper part of the stomach, dividing it into two sections.
  • Spider system is used for the first time in Asia Pacific by Dr. Pradeep Chowbey. This is one of its kind virtually scarless surgical techniques which give excellent cosmetic results.
  • There is a small opening between the sections which allows the food to pass through.
  • The section above the band acts like the stomach that fills with food quickly.
  • As this section of the stomach fills and stretches, signals are sent to the satiety centre of the brain causing you to feel satisfied for several hours.