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Solid organ

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Solid organs that include the adrenal glands, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, and liver secrete juices, and control the amount and distribution of food and water that are responsible for human body to survive. To remove cancer or tumors in the organs, surgeons prefer minimally invasive Laparoscopic surgeries over open surgeries as the former causes minimal pain and reduces the burden of treatment. 


A. Adrenal Glands

The adrenal glands are located on top of your kidneys. It includes: Adrenal cortex(outer part of gland), which is responsible for producing hormones such as cortisol (which helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress) and aldosterone (which helps control blood pressure); Adrenal Medulla(inner part of gland), are responsible for producing non-essential hormones such as adrenaline (that helps your body to control stress).

What is the Surgery for Adrenal Glands

"Adrenalectomy" is a surgery done to remove one or both of your adrenal glands. If a non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous adrenal tumor is discovered or it has spread (metastasized) to the gland from another location, such as kidney or lung, you may require surgery. Tumors of adrenal cortex causes blood levels of aldosterone to increase whereas tumors of medulla causes extreme variation of heart rate or blood pressure, which may be life threatening. In case one adrenal gland is removed, the other one takes full control without the need for supplement medications.   

Types of Adrenalectomy

Adrenalectomy can be performed in two ways. The type of surgery depends on the problem being treated.

  • Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy: In this, several small incisions are made.
  • Open Adrenalectomy: The surgeon makes one large surgical cut to remove the gland.

Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy 


  • The surgery is performed under complete general anaesthesia.
  • Few small punctures are done in abdominal cavity in the upper abdomen or flank just below the ribs.
  • A laparoscope connected to a camera is inserted through the cannula.
  • Other cannulas are also inserted, which allows the surgeon to delicately separate the adrenal gland from its attachments. Once the adrenal gland has been dissected free, it is placed in a small bag and is then removed through one of incisions.
  • After the adrenal gland is removed, the small incisions are closed.

B. Spleen

The organ is located on the upper left side of abdomen. It is fist-shaped, purple in color and about 4 inches long, but it varies in size and shape in different people. Spleen is responsible for filtering blood to strengthen the immune system, in addition to fighting bacteria causing meningitis and pneumonia. Red blood cells are recycled in the spleen to allow storage of platelets and white blood cells.  

Why is Surgery Required for Spleen?

"Splenectomy" is a surgical procedure to remove your spleen. Below mentioned are few reasons for spleen removal:

Auto-immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP): In this disease, the patient's platelet count is significantly low because the body makes antibodies to platelets, which are destroyed in the spleen itself. 

Hemolytic anemia: In this, the body makes antibodies to red blood cells that also are destroyed in spleen.  

Hereditary conditions: There are several diseases that affect the shape of red blood cells, such as, spherocystosis, sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Spleen identifies the red cells as abnormal in the patients suffering from these diseases and ultimately reduce their count. 

Malignancy: Patients suffering from lymphoma or certain types of leukamia rarely require spleen removal. 

Other reasons: Spleen needs to be removed when the blood supply becomes blocked (infarct) or artery abnormally expands (aneurysm)

Laparoscopic Splenectomy


  • The surgery is performed under general anaesthesia.
  • A cannula is placed in the abdomen, causing it to inflate with carbon dioxide gas in order to create a space to operate.
  • A laparoscope is put through one of the cannulas, which projects a video picture of the internal organs and spleen on a television monitor.
  • Several cannulas are placed in different locations on abdomen to allow surgeon to place instruments inside your belly to remove your spleen.
  • After the spleen is cut from all that it is connected to, it is placed inside a special bag. The bag with the spleen inside is pulled into one of the small, but largest incisions on your abdomen. 

C. Kidneys

Kidneys are located at the back of abdomen, each being 4-5 inches long (size of fist). They are responsible for removing all toxic waste products as well as regulating blood pressure, fluids and electrolytes in the body. 

Clinical conditions involving Kidneys

They are:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Urinary tract obstruction
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Nephritis
  • Cysts
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Kidney stones
  • Renal failure
  • Diabetic nephropathy

Surgery for Kidneys

"Nephrectomy" is a surgical procedure to remove all or parts of kidney. It is also done to remove a healthy kidney from a donor for transplantation.

Types of Nephrectomy

There are two types of nephrectomy for a diseased kidney:

Complete nephrectomy: Complete nephrectomy involves removing the entire kidney.

Partial nepherctomy: In partial nephrectomy, only the diseased or injured portion of the kidney is removed.

Laparoscopic Nephrectomy


  • The surgery is performed under general anaesthesia.
  • It is performed through few small punctures or incisions made in the abdomen.
  • Laparoscope and instruments are inserted into abdomen through these keyhole incisions, allowing the surgeon to dissect kidney.
  • The kidney is then placed within a plastic sack and removed through an extension of existing incision sites. 

D. Pancreas

They are located behind the stomach, across the back of abdomen. The head of pancreas is cconnected to a section of small intestine through pancreatic duct. The narrow end of pancreas, called its tail is located to the left side of body. Pancreas are responsible for producing important enzymes and hormones to break down the food. It has an endocrine function where it releases juices directly in the bloodstream as well as exocrine function where it releases juices into ducts. The gland also produces hormone insulin to regulate the glucose or sugar level.

Clinical conditions involving Pancreas

  • Diabetes (Type I and Type II)
  • Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
  • Cysts
  • Tumors
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Islet cell tumour

Surgery for Pancreas

A "pancreatectomy" is the surgical removal of all or part of pancreas. There are several types of pancreatectomy:

  • Pancreaticoduodenectomy
  • Distal pancreatectomy
  • Segmental pancreatectomy
  • Total pancreatectomy

These procedures are used to treat a number of conditions, including Inflammation, Necrotising pancreatitis, Severe chronic pancreatitis, Severe Trauma, Neoplasms, Adenocarcinoma, Cystadenoma, Cystadenocarcinoma, Islet cell tumors, Papillary cystic neoplasms, Lymphoma, Acinar cell tumors, Ampullary cancer, Duodenal cancer, Severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and several others. 

Laparoscopic Pancreatectomy


  • The surgeon makes few punctures/incisions to insert tube-like surgical trochars.
  • The abdomen is filled with gas, usually carbon dioxide, to help the surgeon view the abdominal cavity.
  • A laparoscope and instruments are inserted through incisions.
  • A camera is inserted through one of the tubes and displays images on a monitor in the operating room.
  • If the pancreatectomy is partial, the surgeon clamps and cuts the blood vessels, and the pancreas is stapled and divided for removal. If the disease affects the splenic artery or vein, the spleen is also removed.
  • If the pancreatectomy is total, the surgeon removes the entire pancreas and attached organs. 

E. Liver 

Located on the right side of belly, it has a weight of 3 pounds. It has got two sections- right and left lobes. In addition to filtering blood coming from the digestive tract, it also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. During this, liver secretes bile and sends it back to intestines. The organ is also responsible for making protein, which is important for blood clotting.   

Clinical conditions involving Liver

  • Hepatitis
  • Fatty liver
  • Cirrhosis
  • Cancer
  • Gallstones
  • Ascites

Surgery for Liver

A "hepactectomy" is the surgical removal of liver. Partial hepatectomies are performed for liver transplantation. The extent of surgery depends on the condition patient as well as functioning of liver. The surgeon may remove a part of liver, or an entire lobe. However, in partial hepatectomy, the surgeon leaves a margin of healthy liver tissue. In few cases, liver transplantation is required. 

Laparoscopic Hepatectomy

  •  The surgeon makes two-three tiny incisions in the abdomen to insert tube-like surgical instruments.
  •  The abdomen is filled with gas, usually carbon dioxide, to help the surgeon view the abdominal cavity.
  • The surgeon then enters the laparoscope and instruments through these incisions and removes the affected portion of the liver by placing it inside a bag inside the body.

Advantages of Laparoscopic Surgery

  • Minimal post operative pain
  • Shorter hospital stay and quick return to normal activities
  • Excellent cosmetic results