Is hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus (DM), and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), the major causes of heart failure? This WORLD HEART DAY on 29th September let us all take a pledge to take care of our heart and be an inspiration to thousands of people who are suffering from serious heart diseases.
Diseases like Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) and tropical cardiac muscle diseases are increasing the risk of Heart Failure. Therefore, it is required to educate people about the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CAD). Prevalence of CAD has increased over the last few decades in both rural and urban areas.
Myocardial Infarction, a sequel to CAD, has increased the patients with left ventricular dysfunction and is now considered to be the most common cause of heart failure.
A little more on Lifestyle Diseases
Hypertension is the most common and treatable risk factor for CAD. But, a prolonged and untreated hypertension can cause heart failure, HFpEF being the most common amongst hypertensive patients. By improving the living conditions, taking timely treatment of a streptococcal sore throat, using benzathine penicillin for secondary prophylaxis and timely surgery will reduce the risk of heart failure.
Rapid urbanization and industrialization have caused marked changes in lifestyle and food habits over a period of time. Moreover, India is facing an epidemic especially in urban areas with a large number of Indians being obese and suffering from diabetes. These risk factors (like CAD, hypertension & DM) are largely attributable to lifestyle changes associated with increased urbanization and more prevalent in urban areas.
What are the symptoms of Heart Failure?
The clinical presentation includes:
- Shortness of Breath
- Swelling of feet/Legs
These factors may cause the heart to get enlarged.
How to manage these diseases?
Dr. K.K. Talwar says those who are suffering from hypertension/diabetes/coronary artery disease must have optimum treatment in addition to healthy lifestyle measures to prevent the onset of HF. Thy should:
- Adopt a healthy lifestyle
- Regularly practice aerobic exercise
- Eat a balanced diet
- Maintain an ideal weight
- Avoid smoking
- Decrease the alcohol intake
- No tobacco
Patients who have a left ejaculation fraction less than 30% should be considered for Cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy for primary prevention, while patients with myocarditis on EMB, antiviral and immunosuppression therapy should be evaluated properly.