Coronary Artery Disease is a major health burden with an estimate that India will have largest heart disease burden by 2020. It is the 1st among top 5 causes of death in Indian population. Dr. Subhash Kumar Sinha, Director – CTVS, Max Smart Super Speciality Hospital, Saket explains us that “Coronary Artery diseases is a multi -factorial disease that essentially is a built up of cholesterol inside the coronary artery thus impeding the forward flow of blood in the vessels.”
What are the Factors of CAD?
Our expert clinician divides the factors into Unmodifiable and Modifiable risk factors.
The Unmodifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease are: Family history, diabetes- being post-menopausal for women and being older than 45 for men
The Modifiable ones are Smoking, Tobacco in any form, Stress, Hypertension, Sedentary lifestyles and obesity contributes to this disease in this world of modernization.
How can you prevent this disease?
You may prevent and control many coronary heart disease risk factors with heart-healthy lifestyle changes (routine exercises & yoga) and medicines. There should be the strict and tight management of blood pressure through anti-hypertensive medications, control of diabetes with anti-diabetic medication.
Cut on smoking as well as consuming any form of tobacco. People with a family history or any of the above-mentioned risk factors should have timely medical check-ups and consultation with Heart Doctor to identify the causative factor early.
Are there any recommended tests?
Coronary artery disease can be diagnosed with the aid of echocardiography (2D & stress ECHO) which reveals the percentage of functioning heart muscles. The gold standard for diagnosis is conventional Coronary Angiogram.
Other investigation modalities may be CT- Coronary Angiogram and stress thallium. PET-CT may be advised in case of uncertainty over the benefit of undergoing the operations.
The treatment options include (A) time-tested surgical intervention - coronary artery bypass grafting a.k.a CABG, to restore the blood circulation of the heart muscles using more and more Arterial (Long lasting) and vein grafts. CABG can now easily be done by entering the chest between the ribs (minimally invasive technique) or through a mid-line chest incision. (B) Percutaneous intervention a.k.a stenting.
With present-day technological advances and expertise almost 100% successful outcome can be achieved in Coronary Surgery if done timely, so one should come early to a surgeon for the maximal preservation of heart muscles or heart function.