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BRAIN ATTACK:

Air Pollution

By Dr. Naveen Kumar Ailawadi in Pulmonology

Nov 15 , 2021 | 5 min read

One of our time's most noteworthy scourges is air contamination, on account of its effect on the environmental change as well as its effect on open and individual wellbeing because of expanding bleakness and mortality. There are numerous poisons that are the central point in infection in people. Among them, Particulate Matter (PM), particles of variable yet tiny breadth, infiltrate the respiratory framework through inward breath, causing respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses, conceptive and focal sensory system dysfunctions, and disease. In spite of the way that ozone in the stratosphere assumes a defensive part against bright illumination, it is hurtful when in high fixation at ground level, additionally influencing the respiratory and cardiovascular framework. Moreover, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), dioxins, and polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons (PAHs) are totally viewed as air contaminations that are hurtful to people. Carbon monoxide can even incite direct harm when taken in at undeniable levels. Substantial metals like lead, when assimilated into the human body, can prompt direct harming or persistent inebriation, contingent upon openness. Sicknesses happening from the previously mentioned substances incorporate mainly respiratory issues like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiolitis, and furthermore cellular breakdown in the lungs, cardiovascular occasions, focal sensory system dysfunctions, and cutaneous illnesses. To wrap things up, environmental change coming about because of ecological contamination influences the geological appropriation of numerous irresistible illnesses, as do catastrophic events. The best way to handle this issue is through open mindfulness combined with a multidisciplinary approach by logical specialists; public and worldwide associations should address the development of this danger and propose reasonable arrangements.

How we measure air pollution with Air Quality Index (AQI)

Eight poisons in particular particulate matter (PM) 10, PM2.5, Ozone (O3), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb) and smelling salts (NH3) go about as significant boundaries in inferring the AQI of a space

Below table depicts the value of AQI and its quality.

AQI Value Air Quality Descriptor
0-50 Good
51-100 Moderate
101-199 Unhealthful
200-299 Very unhealthful
e300 Hazardous

 

What is the cause’s air pollution?

Air pollution is caused by components in the air of Nitrogen Dioxide, Sulphur Dioxide, Carbon Mono-oxide, Particulate matter, and ground-level ozone. In the bigger picture, the man himself is responsible for air pollution because of his activities, irresponsible way of using technology, lack of awareness of air pollution.

 

The rising number of air toxins has made breathing fresh, clean air close to inconceivable. Reasons for air contamination have left everybody stressed over their well-being. 

 

As toxins noticeable all around can't be seen with our unaided eyes, we don't understand the wellsprings of the expanding contamination level. To comprehend the wellsprings of air contamination, we should go through the reasons for air contamination.

    1. The Burning of Fossil Fuels 

A large portion of the air contamination happens because of the petroleum products like coal, oil, gas to deliver energy for power or transportation. The arrival of carbon monoxide at a significant level demonstrates how much petroleum product is scorched. Breathing in air instigated with contaminations because of the consumption of gaseous petrol and petroleum product diminishes hearts capacity to siphon sufficient oxygen making one experience respiratory ailment.

  2. Indoor Air Pollution 

Utilization of harmful items can cause indoor air contamination, regardless of whether you are in the office, school, or home. House air contamination can occur because of uninformed variables, for example, smoking tobacco inside a room. The utilization of wood ovens or space radiators is fit to expand the stickiness level that can straightforwardly influence the wellbeing of an individual quickly.

  3. Wildfires

Environmental change isn't simply expanding fierce blaze yet, in addition, spiking air contamination. Consuming stubble and ranch buildup is likewise a significant commitment to out-of-control fire.

  4. Transportation 

There is no rejecting that vehicle contamination is the significant supporter of air contamination, particularly in metropolitan urban communities. The vehicles produce contaminations all around that are just about as destructive as smoking 10 cigarettes per day. Your vehicle produces carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide, and particulate matter. When vehicle contamination is high in the environment, it makes an opening in the ozone layer adding to exhaust clouds and causing different medical problems.

  5. Open Burning of Garbage Waste

Open consumption of trash is substantially more unsafe to your wellbeing and the climate than one might suspect. According to Engage EPW, Delhi Air Pollution is gagging general wellbeing. Delhi produces an astounding 9500 tons of waste each day, making India the second waste unloading city.

  6. Development and Demolition 

During clean air act development, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) enlisted the number of air contamination grumblings in the Delhi NCR because of development contamination and destruction exercises. With the ascent of the populace in the city, development and destruction is a piece of the steadily going improvement period of the public capital. A few building locales and unrefined components, for example, blocks and substantial reason cloudiness and foul air which is dangerous for individuals particularly, kids and older residents.

  7. Agrarian Activities

Agrarian exercises genuinely affect the diminishing air quality. In any case, pesticides and manures are the fundamental sources to defile the encompassing air.

  8. Utilization of compound and manufactured items   

Discussing air contamination, we generally consider open-air contamination hazardous for our lives yet never talk about indoor air contamination. Family items cause indoor air contamination that is multiple times more unsafe than open-air contamination.

 

How can we minimize the bad effects of air pollution with COVID and minimize the formation of air pollution?

 

We all have to a concrete step to reduce air pollution, you can’t single-handedly solve or minimize air pollution. We all have to come together and contribute our best for the betterment of the air we breathe and preserve our planet for the future generation.

 

Below are some Medical & Non-Medical measures that we should take to minimize the effects of air pollution as under:

  Medical Measures:  

  • Avoid morning walks when AQI>300 
  • Take regular inhalers & plan doctor visits for Asthma/Bronchitis and COPD patients 
  • Maintain good hydration of the body by taking more liquids 
  • Take a proper vegetable diet having a good amount of proteins 
  • Regular use of a facemask 
  • Yoga and Pranayama  
  • Maintain proper hygiene 
  • Maintain social distancing 
  • Take Vaccination (pneumococcal & influenzae) as per doctor's advice 

    Non-Medical Measures:    

  • Ban of diesel trucks in metro cities  
  • Development of more and more peripheral highways  
  • Ban of diesel vehicles that are more than 10 years old 
  • Tree plantation 
  • Regular in-house exercises 
  • Avoid smoking  
  • Avoid artificial rain 
  • Avoid burning crops, plastic, and wood