Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a slow and permanent damage to the filtering units of the kidney, leading to retention of toxic substances in the blood. Approximately one in ten adults have some form of kidney disease.
Dr. Yogesh Kumar Chhabra, Consultant, Nephrology, Max Hospital, Shalimar Bagh, says the early stages of CKD usually remain undetected as the person may not have any symptoms. The advanced stage of CKD, when the filtering power of kidney is reduced to 10 % or less, is known as End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) when life cannot be sustained without Dialysis or Kidney Transplant, the cost of which is prohibitive.
In India, every year around 1.5 lakh patients reach ESRD; however, only around 10 % can afford the treatment. Presence of kidney disease is the strong risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which includes angina, heart attack, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease and paralytic strokes. Hence, early detection and prevention of kidney disease will not only reduce the global burden of CKD but also the morbidity and mortality associated with CVD.
High BP and diabetes are the two main causes of kidney disease. Obesity is associated with high BP, diabetes and high cholesterol leading to high risk of CVD. The modern sedentary lifestyle, with prolonged physical inactivity associated with the use of computers, the Mc Donald and cola culture have also contributed to this epidemic of obesity which is also affecting children and youth.
Smoking, use of tobacco products and high salt intake are other risk factors responsible for causing high BP, CVD and kidney disease.
Simple lifestyle modifications are suggested for prevention of high BP, diabetes and obesity thereby, leading to prevention of not only CKD but also CVD:
- Avoid sedentary lifestyle and overeating.
- Maintain normal body weight.
- Dietary modifications: Diet should be rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, reduced content of saturated and total fat, sugars and starches, limit salt intake to 6g/d. Adequate intake of fluids (around 10 – 12 glasses of water daily).
- Physical activity: regular aerobic exercise such as brisk walking at least 30 minutes per day.
- Avoid alcohol consumption, smoking, and tobacco in any form.
- Check your BP and kidney functions every year after 40 years of age and earlier if you have any of the risk factors like high BP, diabetes, obesity, smoking, family history of kidney disease, high BP or diabetes, and women who had high BP during pregnancy.