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BRAIN ATTACK:

Preventing Falls and Fractures: Your Guide to Osteoporosis Safety

By Dr. Ramneek Mahajan in Orthopaedics & Joint Replacement , Arthroscopy & Sports Injury

Oct 19 , 2023 | 3 min read

Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by weakened, porous bones, making them more fragile and susceptible to fractures. This condition often progresses silently, with no symptoms until a fracture occurs. Common sites for fractures in osteoporosis include the hip, spine, and wrist. Osteoporosis is a silent but significant threat to bone health, affecting millions worldwide, particularly as they age. We'll delve into the intricacies of osteoporosis, the connection with ageing and hormones, the impact of lifestyle choices, and offer tips to prevent falls and fractures associated with it.

Causes of osteoporosis

  • Aging: The risk of osteoporosis increases with age. With the progression of time, our bones become less dense and weaker. The process of bone formation slows down while existing bone mass deteriorates over the years, creating a precarious situation where bones become more susceptible to fractures.
  • Hormones: The delicate balance of hormones plays a role in preserving bone density. Estrogen, a hormone primarily associated with women, is crucial for maintaining bone strength. During menopause, the natural reduction in estrogen levels increases bone loss. In men, hormonal changes, specifically the decline in testosterone levels, can lead to reduced bone density, making them susceptible to osteoporosis and fractures.
  • Lifestyle choices: Our day-to-day choices, like what we eat, how active we are, whether we smoke, and how much alcohol we consume, have a significant impact on our bone health. Neglecting these aspects can leave our bones vulnerable to the onset of osteoporosis.

The impact of lifestyle on bone health

Lifestyle choices are powerful determinants of bone health:

  • Nutrition: A diet rich in calcium, vitamin D, and other bone-boosting nutrients is essential. Dairy products, leafy greens, and fortified foods help maintain bone health.
  • Exercise: Weight-bearing exercises like walking, jogging, and resistance training can strengthen bones. Balance exercises are also important for fall prevention.
  • Smoking: Smoking has a negative effect on bone density and overall health. Quitting reduces the risk of osteoporosis.
  • Alcohol: Excessive alcohol consumption can hinder the body's ability to absorb calcium, leading to weakened bones. Moderation is key.

Read more- What do you need to know about Osteoporosis and Spinal Fractures?

Tips to prevent falls and fractures

Preventing falls is crucial for individuals with osteoporosis. Here are some tips:

  • Home safety assessment: Start by conducting a thorough evaluation of your home. Identify and address potential hazards like loose rugs, cluttered walkways, or slippery surfaces. Consider installing grab bars in the bathroom, using non-slip mats, and securing electrical cords out of the way.
  • Proper lighting: Good lighting is essential for preventing falls. Ensure that your home is well-lit, especially in high-traffic areas and staircases. Use nightlights to help you navigate your home safely in the dark.
  • Footwear: Wear supportive, non-slip footwear both indoors and outdoors. Avoid walking around in socks, slippers, or shoes with slippery soles, as they increase the risk of falls.
  • Medication management: Some medications may cause dizziness or affect your balance. Discuss your medications with your doctor and inquire about potential side effects that may increase the risk of falls. If necessary, they can adjust your medication regimen.
  • Regular vision and hearing check-ups: Good vision and hearing are crucial for fall prevention. Regular check-ups with your optometrist and audiologist can help detect and address any issues impairing your ability to see or hear obstacles.
  • Strength and balance exercises: Incorporate strength and balance exercises into your daily routine. Weight-bearing exercises like walking, dancing, or resistance training help strengthen your muscles and bones while improving balance and coordination. Tai Chi and yoga are also effective for enhancing balance.
  • Use assistive devices: Depending on your needs, consider using devices like walkers and canes to maintain stability when walking. Your doctor and physical therapist can guide you in selecting the most appropriate device.
  • Fall-prevention aids: Investigate the use of fall-prevention aids such as hip protectors. These are special garments or pads designed to reduce the risk of hip fractures during a fall.
  • Environmental modifications: In addition to home safety, consider modifying your environment. This might include installing handrails along staircases and in the bathroom, adjusting the height of furniture, or using a raised toilet seat to make daily activities more accessible and safer.
  • Regular bone health check-ups: Ensure you have regular check-ups with your doctor to monitor your bone health. Bone density tests can help assess the progression of osteoporosis and guide treatment decisions.

Read more-  What Can You Do For Building Stronger Bones?

Osteoporosis is a condition that can be managed and, to some extent, prevented. Understanding the causes, the interplay of ageing and hormones, and the impact of lifestyle choices is key to maintaining strong, healthy bones. By following the tips for fall prevention and being proactive about bone health, individuals can enjoy a better quality of life and reduce their risk of fractures associated with osteoporosis.