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Lymphocytes: Function, Levels and Disorders

By Dr. Nivedita Dhingra in Bone Marrow Transplant

May 22 , 2024 | 11 min read

While not many people know about them or the significance of their role, the fact remains that lymphocytes serve as the backbone of our immune system, protecting us from infections and diseases. Understanding their functions, levels, and ranges is essential for grasping immune health. In this article, we explore the basics of lymphocytes, including their function, levels, ranges, disorders, and treatment options. Let’s begin with understanding the basics. 

What are Lymphocytes?

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. They are produced in the bone marrow and are primarily found in the lymphatic system, which includes lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, and other lymphoid tissues, 

What do Lymphocytes do?

Lymphocytes play a crucial role in the body's immune system. They are specialized white blood cells that help defend the body against foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other pathogens, as well as abnormal cells like cancer cells. Lymphocytes achieve this through various mechanisms:

  • Antibody Production (B cells): B lymphocytes, also known as B cells, produce antibodies, which are proteins that specifically target and neutralize foreign substances (antigens) such as viruses and bacteria. These antibodies bind to antigens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells or directly neutralizing them.
  • Cell-Mediated Immunity (T cells): T lymphocytes, or T cells, are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. They identify and destroy infected or abnormal cells directly by releasing toxic substances or by signaling other immune cells to eliminate the threat.
  • Memory Response: Lymphocytes also have a memory function. Once they encounter a specific antigen, some lymphocytes become memory cells, which can rapidly recognize and mount a stronger immune response upon subsequent encounters with the same antigen. This memory response provides long-lasting immunity against previously encountered pathogens.
  • Regulation of Immune Response: Certain types of lymphocytes, such as regulatory T cells (Tregs), help regulate the immune response by suppressing excessive inflammation and preventing autoimmune reactions, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues.
  • Surveillance: Natural killer (NK) cells, a type of lymphocyte, patrol the body and detect and destroy abnormal cells, including virus-infected cells and cancer cells, without prior sensitization.

What are the Types of Lymphocytes?

There are the three main types of lymphocytes:

  • B lymphocytes (B cells): These cells are responsible for producing antibodies that target specific pathogens. They play a crucial role in the humoral immune response, where antibodies circulate in bodily fluids to neutralize pathogens.
  • T lymphocytes (T cells): T cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, where they directly attack and destroy infected or abnormal cells. They also regulate the immune response and help coordinate the actions of other immune cells.
  • Natural killer (NK) cells: NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte that can recognize and kill infected or abnormal cells, including virus-infected cells and cancer cells, without prior sensitization. They provide rapid responses to pathogens and tumors, contributing to the body's innate immune defense.

What are Lymphocyte Ranges?

Lymphocyte ranges typically refer to the normal levels of lymphocytes in the bloodstream, which are measured as a percentage of total white blood cells (WBCs) or as an absolute count. These ranges can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age, sex, and health status. However, here are the general reference ranges:

  • Percentage of Lymphocytes: In adults, lymphocytes usually make up about 20% to 40% of the total white blood cell count.
  • Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC): The normal range for the absolute lymphocyte count is typically between 1000 and 4000 lymphocytes per microliter of blood.

It's important to note that deviations from these ranges can indicate various health conditions. For example, abnormally low lymphocyte levels (lymphopenia) may occur in conditions such as viral infections, autoimmune disorders, bone marrow disorders, or immunodeficiency diseases. Conversely, abnormally high lymphocyte levels (lymphocytosis) can be seen in infections, inflammatory conditions, certain cancers, or as a response to stress.

Note: Interpretation of lymphocyte levels should always be done in conjunction with other clinical findings and medical history to determine the underlying cause and appropriate management. 

What is Considered a High Lymphocyte Level?

A high lymphocyte level, a condition known as Lymphocytosis, is typically defined as having an absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) above the normal range. While the specific threshold may vary slightly depending on the laboratory and individual factors, a general guideline for adults is an ALC above 4000 lymphocytes per microliter of blood.

What are the Causes of Lymphocytosis?

Lymphocytosis can occur for various reasons. Common causes include:

  • Infections: Viral infections are a common cause of lymphocytosis. This includes infections such as:
    • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which causes infectious mononucleosis
    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    • Adenovirus
    • Hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, etc.)
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
    • Respiratory viruses (e.g., influenza, respiratory syncytial virus)

Bacterial infections can also lead to lymphocytosis, including pertussis (whooping cough), tuberculosis, and brucellosis.

  • Inflammatory Conditions: Inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), and sarcoidosis, can cause an increase in lymphocyte levels.
  • Stress and Physiological Response: Emotional or physical stress can trigger a temporary increase in lymphocytes. This can occur during periods of intense exercise, trauma, surgery, or acute illness.
  • Medications: Certain medications, particularly corticosteroids (such as prednisone) and anticonvulsants, can induce lymphocytosis as a side effect.
  • Allergies: Severe allergic reactions or hypersensitivity responses can sometimes result in elevated lymphocyte levels.
  • Smoking: Chronic smoking has been associated with lymphocytosis, likely due to the body's response to the harmful substances in tobacco smoke.
  • Hematological Disorders: In some cases, lymphocytosis may be a sign of an underlying hematological disorder, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), lymphoma, or other types of leukemia.
  • Recovery Phase: After recovering from certain infections or conditions, such as viral illnesses or post-treatment for cancer, lymphocytosis may occur as part of the body's immune response.

The specific cause of lymphocytosis can vary based on individual factors, such as age, overall health, and medical history. If lymphocytosis is detected, further evaluation by a healthcare professional may be necessary to determine the underlying cause and appropriate management.

What are the Treatment Options for Lymphocytosis?

The treatment options for lymphocytosis depend on the underlying cause of the elevated lymphocyte count. Here are some common treatment approaches:

  • Treating Infections: If the lymphocytosis is due to a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection, the primary treatment is to address the infection itself. This may involve antibiotics for bacterial infections, antiviral medications for viral infections, or antifungal medications for fungal infections.
  • Managing Autoimmune Disorders: In cases where lymphocytosis is associated with autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or autoimmune hepatitis, treatment focuses on controlling the underlying autoimmune response. This may involve immunosuppressive medications such as corticosteroids, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), or biologic therapies.
  • Chemotherapy or Immunotherapy: If lymphocytosis is caused by certain types of leukemia or lymphoma, treatment may involve chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these approaches to reduce the number of abnormal lymphocytes.
  • Managing Medication Side Effects: Some medications can cause lymphocytosis as a side effect. In such cases, adjusting or discontinuing the offending medication may be necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare provider.
  • Monitoring and Observation: In some cases, particularly when lymphocytosis is mild and transient, no specific treatment may be required. Instead, close monitoring by a healthcare provider to track changes in lymphocyte count over time may be recommended.
  • Addressing Underlying Conditions: Identifying and treating any underlying medical conditions contributing to lymphocytosis is essential. For example, addressing chronic inflammatory conditions or correcting nutritional deficiencies may help normalize lymphocyte levels.
  • Supportive Care: Depending on the individual's symptoms and overall health status, supportive care measures such as pain management, hydration, and nutritional support may be beneficial.

What is Considered a Low Lymphocyte Level?

A low lymphocyte level, a condition known as Lymphocytopenia, refers to a decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the bloodstream. While the specific threshold may vary slightly depending on the laboratory and individual factors, a general guideline for adults is an absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) below 1000 lymphocytes per microliter of blood.

What are the Causes of Lymphocytopenia?

Lymphocytopenia can occur for various reasons. Common causes include:

  • Infections: Certain viral infections can suppress the production of lymphocytes or cause their destruction, leading to lymphocytopenia. Examples include HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19).
  • Immune System Disorders: Autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), can affect lymphocyte production and function, leading to lymphocytopenia.
  • Bone Marrow Disorders: Conditions that affect the bone marrow's ability to produce lymphocytes, such as aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), or leukemia, can result in low lymphocyte levels.
  • Medications: Certain medications, particularly chemotherapy drugs, immunosuppressants (used after organ transplantation), corticosteroids, and antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS, can cause lymphocytopenia as a side effect.
  • Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy, often used to treat cancer, can suppress the bone marrow's ability to produce lymphocytes, leading to decreased lymphocyte levels.
  • Malnutrition: Severe malnutrition, particularly protein-energy malnutrition, can impair immune function and decrease lymphocyte production.
  • Hematological Disorders: Certain hematological disorders, such as hairy cell leukemia or lymphoblastic leukemia, can lead to a decrease in lymphocyte levels.
  • Genetic Disorders: Rare genetic disorders, such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome or severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), can result in decreased lymphocyte production or function.
  • Chronic Medical Conditions: Chronic diseases, such as liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, or congestive heart failure, can sometimes lead to decreased lymphocyte levels.
  • Severe Stress or Trauma: Intense physical or emotional stress, trauma, surgery, or critical illness can temporarily suppress immune function and lead to decreased lymphocyte levels.

What are the Treatment Options for Lymphocytopenia?

Treatment options for lymphocytopenia depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In many cases, the focus is on addressing the specific cause of low lymphocyte levels and managing any associated symptoms. Some potential treatment options include:

  • Treating Underlying Infections: If lymphocytopenia is due to an infection, such as a viral or bacterial infection, treatment may involve antiviral or antibiotic medications to eliminate the infectious agent and restore normal lymphocyte levels.
  • Managing Autoimmune Disorders: For individuals with autoimmune diseases contributing to lymphocytopenia, treatment may involve immunosuppressive medications or immunomodulatory therapies to help control the immune system's abnormal response and prevent further damage to lymphocytes.
  • Adjusting Medications: If lymphocytopenia is a side effect of certain medications, such as chemotherapy drugs, immunosuppressants, or corticosteroids, adjusting the dosage or switching to alternative medications may be necessary to alleviate the low lymphocyte count.
  • Supportive Care: Supportive measures, such as adequate nutrition, hydration, rest, and stress reduction techniques, can help support immune function and improve overall health in individuals with lymphocytopenia.
  • Treatment of Hematological Disorders: For lymphocytopenia associated with hematological disorders, such as leukemia or aplastic anemia, treatment may involve targeted therapies, bone marrow transplantation, or other interventions to address the underlying disorder and restore normal lymphocyte production.
  • Preventing Infections: Individuals with lymphocytopenia are more susceptible to infections, so preventive measures, such as vaccinations, prophylactic antibiotics, and avoiding exposure to infectious agents, may be recommended to reduce the risk of infections.
  • Monitoring and Follow-Up: Regular monitoring of lymphocyte levels and overall health status is essential for individuals with lymphocytopenia to assess treatment effectiveness, detect any complications or infections early, and adjust treatment as needed.

What are Common Symptoms of Lymphocyte Conditions?

The symptoms of lymphocyte conditions can vary widely depending on the specific disorder or underlying cause. However, some common symptoms associated with lymphocyte-related conditions include:

  • Swollen Lymph Nodes: Enlarged or swollen lymph nodes, particularly in the neck, armpits, or groin, are a common symptom of lymphocyte-related conditions. Swollen lymph nodes may feel tender or painful to the touch.
  • Fatigue: Persistent fatigue or weakness may occur, especially if the body is fighting an infection or dealing with a chronic condition like leukemia or lymphoma.
  • Fever: Fever is a common symptom of infections, including viral and bacterial infections, which can lead to an increase in lymphocytes.
  • Night Sweats: Profuse sweating, particularly at night, can be a symptom of certain lymphocyte-related disorders, such as lymphoma.
  • Unexplained Weight Loss: Significant and unexplained weight loss, often accompanied by loss of appetite, can be a sign of underlying lymphocyte-related conditions, including lymphoma or leukemia.
  • Frequent Infections: Recurrent or persistent infections, such as respiratory infections, sinusitis, or urinary tract infections, may indicate an underlying immune system dysfunction.
  • Bruising or Bleeding: Easy bruising, prolonged bleeding, or frequent nosebleeds may occur in certain lymphocyte disorders, such as leukemia, which can affect the body's ability to produce normal blood cells.
  • Shortness of Breath: Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath can be a symptom of lymphoma if the condition affects the lungs or mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • Abdominal Pain or Swelling: Enlarged lymph nodes or organs in the abdomen, such as the spleen or liver, can cause abdominal pain, discomfort, or swelling.
  • Skin Changes: Skin changes, such as rashes, itching, or redness, may occur in some lymphocyte-related conditions, including certain types of lymphoma or autoimmune disorders.

Wrap up

As we conclude our exploration of lymphocytes and their importance in immune health, it's crucial to emphasize the significance of seeking expert medical guidance when needed. If you have concerns about your lymphocyte levels, immune function, or overall health, don't hesitate to consult a hematologist or hemato-oncologist at Max Hospitals. Equipped with deep expertise and state-of-the-art facilities, the specialists at Max Hospitals are dedicated to providing personalized care and comprehensive solutions tailored to your individual needs. Schedule a consultation today and take proactive steps towards a healthier tomorrow.

Review

Reviewed By Dr. Nivedita Dhingra, Principal Consultant - Medical Oncology (Haematology, Hemato – Oncology, BMT) and Dr. Karuna Jha Consultant - Bone Marrow Transplant, Haemato-Oncology And Haematology on 22 May 2024.