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Diabetes

Overview

Diabetes is a disease which happens when the blood sugar level is too high. This disease is a serious metabolic disorder which can significantly affect the entire body. Pancreas is responsible for making insulin in our body, so if one is suffering from diabetes, the pancreas will stop making insulin, resulting in diabetes.

The most common form of the disease is the Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. The Type 1 or Insulin Dependent Diabetes usually develops in children. Type 2 or non-insulin dependent diabetes is more common in adults; however, since the epidemic of obesity, more teenagers are also starting to develop type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes symptoms vary from one person to another. Common symptoms include:

  • Frequent Urination: A person will urinate more often if there is a significant amount of sugar in the blood. The kidneys are unable to filter glucose in the blood if insulin is less or negligible. It also makes the kidneys dilute the glucose by taking water from the blood which aids in filling up the bladder.
  • Unbalanced Thirst: The lost liquid from the bladder needs to be replaced by drinking more fluids.
  • Acute Hunger: The body needs to find more energy because insulin stops functioning properly in the blood. The cells need energy from food to carry out the functions of the body.
  • Unusual Weight Loss: People with Type 1 Diabetes usually face this problem. The fat breaks down to compensate for energy because the cells stop getting enough glucose.
  • Fatigue: Glucose will not enter the cells if insulin is not functioning properly. This makes the person feel tired and restless due to lack of energy.
  • Blurred Vision: The tissue gets pulled away from the eye lenses which affect the ability to focus. In severe cases, blindness may also occur.
  • Swollen Gums: The red and swollen tender gums may lead to loosen teeth.
  • Dry Mouth and Itchy skin: The body uses fluids to make urine thus leaving the body with less moisture for other things leading to itchy skin and dry mouth.
 

Diabetes treatment includes measuring the blood glucose levels by conducting a blood test.  Treatment of diabetes does not mean control of blood sugar alone. Since, diabetes are more prone to heart disease, kidney failure, foot problems, eye involvements & sexual disorders, the doctor needs to monitor various other parameters so that the complications are averted .  The doctor recommends an effective plan with a combination of diet, exercise and most importantly medicines. The treatment varies from person to person and also requires keeping a close watch on the blood sugar levels. Effective management of diabetes includes:

  • Exercise: Minimum 30 minutes of physical activity is essential in controlling diabetes and preventing heart-related diseases
  • Medication: Taking oral medications that control the blood sugar levels
  • Monitoring Blood Sugar: Regularly monitoring blood sugar levels is important
  • Healthy eating: A combination of what to eat, when to eat and how much to eat results in a healthy lifestyle. A meal plan can effectively lower the risk of further complications. The diet must be rich in whole grains, fruits and vegetables.
 

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