It is advisable to go for regular medical check-ups rather than waiting for symptoms or pain to occur. It is not correct to jump to conclusions as only a doctor has the qualification to tell the patient whether it is cancer or any other condition. Apart from the physical examination, he may conduct a series of tests and imaging procedures. If the initial tests do not reveal any mutations, the doctor will advise a biopsy that removes a sample of tissue that is then diagnosed by a pathologist. A pathologist is able to judge what kind of cancer cells have manifested and their likely chances of growth.
When to visit the doctor?
• Fever higher than 100.5°F
• Cough or sore throat
• Vomiting that continues for longer than 12 hours
• Severe constipation or diarrhoea
• Bleeding or bruising
• Shortness of breath/chest pain
• Urinary burning
• Blood in the urine or stool
• Pain in a new place or pain that is not relieved by your pain medicine
Cancer is not a contagious disease. It does not spread from one person to another. A healthy person cannot get it from a cancer patient by close contact or breathing the same air. The only time when cancer has the possibility to spread is when there is a transplantation of tissue or organ.
We know that germs like bacteria and virus are communicable with any form of physical contact. This leads to the misconception that cancers are contagious. It is worth knowing that the cancer cells from an infected person are thoroughly destroyed by the cells of a healthy person. This is so because the immune system of a healthy person is very strong whereas that of a cancer stricken patient is quite weak. The immune system of the patient further takes a great deal of beating during the entire process of treatment.
You may worry that these lifesaving treatments could somehow be harmful to your loved ones. The general answer to this concern is that physical contact is fine with children and other members at home.
The changes in the body image can affect self-esteem – or how you feel about yourself. For many people, self-esteem is very closely tied with body image, which is how you feel about your body. Cancer can change the way you look, temporarily or permanently.
• Chemotherapy can sometimes make your hair fall out.
• You may have had surgery to remove a part of your body, and you may have scars. You may now have an
• Radiation therapy can cause various changes.
Cancer and cancer treatment can cause a number of changes in your body. This is true for many patients, but not all patients.
Some common changes are:
• Scars (if you have had surgery)
• Hair loss (if you had chemotherapy)
• Loss or change in shape, size or swelling to a body part
• Skin changes or nail discolouration
• Weight changes (weight gain or weight loss) 
The Internet is awash with claims that sugar feeds cancer growth and that eliminating sugar from your diet will cure the disease. However, there is no conclusive evidence that proves eating sugar will make cancer grow and spread more quickly. All cells in the body, both healthy cells and cancer cells, depend on glucose, a type of sugar, to function. And the body breaks down all of the food you eat into glucose molecules. So, eating sugar won’t speed up the growth of cancer, just as cutting sugar out completely won’t slow down its growth.
This doesn’t mean you should eat a high-sugar diet, though. Consuming too many calories from sugary foods has been linked to weight gain, obesity, and diabetes, which increase the risk of developing cancer and other health problems. 
No. Based on the most recent data, about 40 percent of men and women will be diagnosed with cancer at some point during their lives. Most cancers are caused by genetic changes that occur throughout a person’s lifetime as a natural result of aging and exposure to environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke and radiation. Other factors, such as what kind of food you eat, how much you eat, and whether you exercise, may also influence your risk of developing cancer.
There is no age limit for cancer treatment. Decisions about cancer treatment for older adults should take into consideration the same factors as for younger adults and should not focus on the person’s age alone. Many older patients benefit as much as younger patients from treatment. However, some older adults may have other illnesses that limit the use of specific treatments.
The chance that surgery will cause cancer to spread to other parts of the body is extremely low. Following standard procedures, surgeons use special methods and take many steps to prevent cancer cells from spreading during biopsies or surgery to remove tumors. For example, if they must remove tissue from more than one area of the body, they use different surgical tools for each area.
The risk that your cancer returns, or recurs, depends on the type of cancer you had, the stage of the cancer at diagnosis, the treatment you received, how much time has passed since your treatment, genetic factors, and environmental exposure. Your doctor can discuss your personal risk of recurrence with you.
The signs and symptoms of recurrence vary based on the type of cancer and how it has grown. In some cases, you may not feel or see any signs. Therefore, it’s vitally important to attend follow-up visits with your doctor or nurse to monitor your health.
Tell your healthcare provider about any new symptoms you have so that they can be evaluated. However, at the same time, remember that every symptom you have will not be related to cancer. 
Patients having Hormonally driven cancers –Breast and prostate do experience weight gain during the course of therapy also during chemotherapy the repeated use of steroids in certain types of chemotherapy is responsible for weight gain.Also a check should be kept on hypothyroidism which is at times precipitated post radiotherapy and certain targeted therapies,also diabetes which is precipated at times during the course of treatment can lead to weight gain. Usually the end of treatment brings pivotal changes, both mental and physical, for cancer survivors, including a recommended switch back to a mostly diet rich in unsaturated fats to manage weight. Just like other healthy people, cancer survivors should consume a diet of fruits and vegetables, grains and protein.
Regular exercise which is not strenuous especially during chemotherapy has the following benefits
• Increases Appetite
• Allays Depression
• Decreases chances of constipation
And of course helps in checking the weight and aggravation of Diabetes and cardiovascular related diseases
The important thing is to keep Doing Exercise to a level which does not let fatigue set in and therefore these schedules should not be stringent. 
People who can’t eat on their own but whose bodies can digest food might get “tube feedings.” People who get tube feedings get their food and nutrients through a tube that goes into the stomach or small intestine. This is also called Enteral feeding. 
No. Although some studies suggest that alternative or complementary therapies, including some herbs, may help patients cope with the side effects of cancer treatment, no herbal products have been shown to be effective for treating cancer. In fact, some herbal products may be harmful when taken during chemotherapy or radiation therapy because they may interfere with how these treatments work. Cancer patients should talk with their doctor about any complementary and alternative medicine products—including vitamins and herbal supplements—they may be using.
When your body tells you it is tired, listen to it. Rest, lie down during the day or go to bed early.
• Choose carefully what you do when you are very tired. Having something to do that you enjoy can be a good distraction. Regular exercise, without overdoing it, may help prevent depression and tiredness.
• Develop a plan to pace yourself. Space activities out over the week. Plan rest periods between activities.
• While you are recovering from treatment give simple tasks, such as house work, to other people. Sometimes it can be difficult to accept help. Your family and friends appreciate being asked to help you with practical tasks such as shopping and cooking. 
If you have a panic attack:
• Take slow deep breaths.
• Distract yourself. For example go for a walk, ring a friend, or listen to music.
• Do relaxation exercises. 
Many people go through a time of grief and sadness when they first learn that they have cancer. They grieve the loss of health and certainty in their lives. This sadness may seem like depression, but it’s not the same. Grieving – feeling sadness, fear, anger, or going through crying spells – is a common reaction to learning you have cancer. It usually doesn’t last a long time, and is normal.
Patients receiving Radiotherapy - RT on their head lose their scalp hair (that too partially). If you are getting radiation on any other body part, you will not lose your scalp hair. Radiation causes only hair loss in local area. Patient receiving radiation to breast might lose some hair in arm pit or male patients with RT might lose facial/beard/moustache hair.
Sometimes people may stare, make comments, ask questions or avoid people with body changes. This can be upsetting and hard to deal with. Social skills focus on how to communicate well and can help you manage social gatherings and the reactions of other people.
You may wish to think about:
• Presentation – The way you present yourself overall is important, for example, dress and accessories. It conveys a message to other people about how you feel about yourself.
• Posture – Communication involves the whole body. Standing with your shoulders back and head up makes you look confident and assertive.
• Engaging with people – Making eye contact, smiling and nodding tells others that you’re approachable.
• Taking the initiative – You may wish to talk about your body changes at an appropriate point in a conversation.
• Having self-confidence and believing in one self is of utmost importance. 
It’s normal to feel anxious before your follow-up tests and appointments, but there are ways to ease your mind.
Tips and strategies
• Writing down questions about any issues you are currently or have been experiencing — whether it’s long-standing symptoms, emotional aspects, or practical issues such as questions about health insurance — and
• Asking a friend or family member to sit with you while you wait for your scans.
• In the days before your appointments, schedule activities that can help distract you from worrying, such as going for walks, talking with friends and family, or doing a calming exercise like yoga.
• Positive feedback by self : “ I am alright”.
You may find that your anxiety lessens or disappears over time. 
• Follow-up cancer care involves regular medical checkups that include a review of a patient’s medical history and a physical exam. Follow-up care may include imaging procedures(X Rays, Utrasound, CT Scan, MRIs etc), blood tests, and other lab tests.
• Follow-up care is important because it helps to identify changes in health. The purpose of follow-up care is to check for recurrence (the return of cancer in the primary site) or metastasis (the spread of cancer to another part of the body) or be sure that one is cancer free.
• Follow-up care visits are also important to help in the prevention or early detection of other types of cancer, address ongoing problems due to cancer or its treatment, and check for physical effects that may develop months to years after treatment ends. All cancer survivors should have follow-up care. 
There are several important things you can to do safeguard your health.
• Stop Smoking / Alcohol
Quitting smoking is one of the best ways to improve your general health. Quitting will help you breathe easier and feel better overall. It will also reduce your risk of developing certain cancers and will help prevent cardiovascular disease.
• Eat a Nutritious Diet
Eating a nutrient-rich diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables can help you feel better and may lower your chances of developing other health problems. Our Eating Your Way to Better Health and Eating Well during and after Your Cancer Treatment guides offer general dietary guidance.
• Achieve and Maintain a Healthy Weight
After cancer treatment, speak with your healthcare provider about whether you need to gain or lose weight.
• Exercise Regularly and management of weight.
Exercise after cancer treatment, regardless of how active you were prior to your diagnosis, can improve cardiovascular fitness and muscle strength. Regular exercise may also reduce fatigue in some cancer survivors. 
Our daily diet makes a huge difference in the functioning of our immune system. There are certain foods which strengthen the immune system of the human body and lower the risks of infections. It is a not an immensely difficult task to find a link between a good nutritious palate and the prevention of cancer. There are certain foods which do contribute to the prevention of cancer. Also, different foods have varied effects on the human body. Cancer can be prevented by good nutrition.
• Focus on fruits and vegetables in the daily diet.
• Include lots of fibers in the diet. This can be done by using brown bread instead of white bread and brown rice instead of white polished rice.
• Avoid fried food and opt for natural food.
• Cut down on processed food including red meat.
• Prepare food healthily. Avoid cooking in high heat and use less oil. We must wash our food pretty well and use steam as a process to cook. 
The main intent for genetic counselling is to escalate the process of finding out disorders which are genetic in nature. Once one gets to know them, understanding them becomes easier. The sessions of counselling begin from this very point and are used to explain to the patient, the various management procedures for nullifying the disease. A genetic counselling session not only educates the patient of the origin of the disease but also explains the risk and the potential positive outcomes of all medical tests. The benefits of genetic counselling are:
• Individualized and comprehensive counseling from cancer genetics experts, including medical oncologists trained in cancer genetics, Practiced nurses and board-certified genetic counselors and social workers.
• Potential for discovering an increased risk of cancer.
• Opportunity to learn about the benefits, risks, and limitations of genetic testing.
• Option to undergo genetic testing, if appropriate.
• Patients and their families can learn how to decrease their risk for developing cancer (screening or medical and surgical approaches).

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