Hepatitis E: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment | Max Hospital
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Bio Medical Waste Report For Shalimar Bagh

Month Red Autoclave(Infected Plastic Waste) Yellow- Incineration(AnatomicalWaste & Soiled Waste) Blue Autoclave (Glass- Bottles) Black Cytotoxic- Incineration( Cytotoxic Contaminated Items) White- Sharp Total Bags Total Weight(In KG's)
  No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's)    
Apr-17 924 2963.50 954 2994.10 239 1017.30 103 279.20 1645 606.40 3865 7861.00
May-17 1175 4624.12 1028 3498.40 276 1524.34 87 195.01 1803 823.85 4369 10665.71
Jun-17 1060 4511.45 902 2886.66 293 1324.05 76 194.00 2057 1100.69 4388 10016.85
Jul-17                     0 0.00
Aug-17                     0 0.00
Sep-17                     0 0.00
Oct-17                     0 0.00
Nov-17                     0 0.00
Dec-17                     0 0.00
Jan-18                     0 0.00
Feb-18                     0 0.00
Mar-18                     0 0.00
YTD 3159 12099.065 2884 9379.155 808 3865.69 266 668.705 5505 2530.94 12622 28543.555

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Hepatitis A & E

Home >> Our Specialities >> Liver Transplant And Biliary Sciences >> Conditions Treatments >> Hepatitis A & E

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Hepatitis A is a viral liver disease that can cause mild to severe illness. It relates to inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver.The hepatitis A virus is transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food and water, or through direct contact with an infectious person.

The hepatitis A virus is one of the most frequent causes of food borne infection. Epidemics related to contaminated food or water can erupt explosively, such as the epidemic in Shanghai in 1988 that affected about 300 000 people. Hepatitis A viruses persist in the environment and can resist food-production processes routinely used to inactivate and/or control bacterial pathogens.

Improved sanitation and the hepatitis A vaccine are the most effective ways to combat the disease.


There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. Recovery from symptoms following infection may be slow and take several weeks or months. Therapy is aimed at maintaining comfort and adequate nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids that are lost from vomiting and diarrhea.

Improved sanitation, food safety and immunization are the most effective ways to combat hepatitis A. The spread of hepatitis A can be reduced by:

  • Adequate supplies of safe drinking water
  • Proper disposal of sewage within communities
  • Personal hygiene practices such as regular hand washing with safe water.

Several hepatitis A vaccines are available. All are similar in terms of how well they protect people from the virus and their side effects. No vaccine is licensed for children younger than one year of age.

Nearly 100% of people develop protective levels of antibodies to the virus within one month after a single dose of the vaccine. Even after exposure to the virus, a single dose of the vaccine within two weeks of contact with the virus has protective effects. Still, manufacturers recommend two vaccine doses to ensure a longer-term protection of about five to eight years after vaccination.


Symptoms: The incubation period of hepatitis A is usually 14–28 days.

Symptoms of hepatitis A virus range from fever, malaise, and loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark-colored urine and jaundice. Not everyone who is infected will have all of the symptoms.

Risk Factors

Anyone who has not been vaccinated or previously infected can contract hepatitis A. Risk factors include:

  • Poor sanitation
  • Lack of safe water
  • Injecting drugs
  • Living in a household with an infected person
  • Being a sexual partner of someone with acute hepatitis A infection
  • Traveling to areas of high probability without being immunized.

What are non-cancerous liver tumors?

Non-cancerous (benign) tumors are quite common and usually do not produce symptoms. Often, they are not diagnosed until an ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is performed. There are several types of benign liver tumors, including the following:

Hepatocellular adenoma : This benign tumor occurs most often in women of childbearing age. Most of these tumors remain undetected. Sometimes, an adenoma will rupture and bleed into the abdominal cavity, requiring surgery. Adenomas rarely become cancerous.

Hemangioma :This type of benign tumor is a mass of abnormal blood vessels. Up to five percent of adults have small liver hemangiomas that cause no symptoms. Treatment is usually not required. Sometimes, infants with large liver hemangiomas require surgery to prevent clotting and heart failure.

What are cancerous liver tumors?

Cancerous (malignant) tumors in the liver have either originated in the liver (primary liver cancer) or spread from cancer sites elsewhere in the body (metastatic liver cancer). Most cancerous tumors in the liver are metastatic.

What is hepatoma (primary liver cancer)?

Also called hepatocellular carcinoma, this is the most common form of primary liver cancer. Chronic infection with hepatitis B and C increases the risk of developing this type of cancer. Other causes include cancer-causing substances, alcoholism, and chronic liver cirrhosis.

Symptoms of a Liver hepatoma

The following are the most common symptoms of a liver hepatoma. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Large mass can be felt in upper, right part of abdomen
  • Fever
  • Jaundice – yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The symptoms of a liver hepatoma may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

How Is Liver Hepatoma Diagonosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for a liver hepatoma may include the following:

Liver function tests: A series of special blood tests that can determine if the liver is functioning properly.

Abdominal ultrasound (Also called sonography.) – a diagnostic imaging technique, which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs of the abdomen such as the liver, spleen, and kidneys and to assess blood flow through various vessels.

Computed tomography scan (CT or CAT scan) -a diagnostic imaging procedure using a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.

Hepatic arteriography – x-rays taken after a substance in injected into the hepatic artery.

Liver biopsy:  A procedure in which tissue samples from the liver are removed (with a needle or during surgery) from the body for examination under a microscope.

Treatment Of Hepatoma

Physicians will be able to determine the right treatment for patients suffering from liver hepatoma based on:

  • Age, overall health, and medical history
  • Extent of the disease
  • Tolerance of specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
  • Expectations for the course of the disease
  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Surgery
  • Surgery may be necessary to remove cancerous tissue, as well as nearby non- cancerous tissue. Total surgical removal of the liver lobe or removal of segments of the liver may be performed.
  • Radiation therapy
  • Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill or shrink cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy
  • Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells.
  • Liver transplantation
  • Transplant the whole liver with a new one from a donor.