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Neurosciences

The neurological disorders primarily include diseases of:
- Spinal cord
- Brain
- Nerves
- Muscles
The disorders are:
- Stroke
- Epilepsy
- Migraine/Headaches
- Parkinson’s
- Multiple Sclerosis
Brain tumors
- Brain Injuries
- Alzheimer’s
- Degenerative Spine Disorders
- Slip Discs
- Spinal Injury
- Spinal Tumour, Spinal Deformities

To Know more about all the Neurology Disorder

You can witness:
- Sudden numbness or weakness
- Loss of hearing or speech difficulties
- Confusion
- Poor cognitive skills
- Double vision
- Difficulty in vision
- Seizures
- Difficulty in walking
- Severe Headache
- Bladder/ Blood Dysfunction
It is important to evaluate a stroke patient by doing either a CT scan or MRI of brain in the first 3 hours. For occlusive strokes, the clot bursting medication has to be administered within 3 to 4.5 hours of its onset. The urgency of the stroke has to be understood as some patients might require lifesaving surgery. 
Treatment and outcome of treating stroke entirely depends on how early are the patients bought to the hospital. It has been observed that the percentage of acute stroke patients arriving within the “Window Period” has significantly increased, causing more and more patients to be eligible for THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY. It is a treatment done to dissolve the clots in the blood vessels in order to improve the blood flow and avoid damage to the tissues and organs.
This therapy provides a likelihood of recovery in about 40-50% patients, witnessing that there is a standard protocol for both Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke with all advanced forms of treatment. 
When the stroke patient returns home from the hospital, usually there is an excitement seen amongst the family members and relatives. Since the patient is aware that he will not be able to perform the tasks he used to before the stroke, it is best that the caregivers do not express their emotions on how they seem it is unfair. Even cheerful comments like how independent or strong he is, can backfire and make the person feel depressed. Often seen, that if the stroke occurs at a mature stage in life, it is difficult for the person to endure it. Slowly, the anguish and anger can creep inside the stroke patients and make them more frustrated. 
No, spine surgery has a success rate of 92-95%. It is indicated for conditions like disc prolapse, spinal canal stenosis and spinal instability, Spine tumours, when the symptoms and signs pertaining to above conditions match the MRI findings.
However, in the absence of neurological deficit like weakness in the limbs, loss of sensation, bowel/bladder disturbances, you should opt for a trial of adequate conservative management- the period of which is normally 3 weeks to 3 months. Conservative therapy can be in the form of analgesics, physiotherapy and lifestyle changes. Despite that, if the pain persists or if there is progression of symptoms, then surgery is advised. Indications for surgery include:
- Onset of a new neurological deficit.
- Bowel / Bladder problems
- Failure of adequate conservative trial
- Neurogenic intermittent claudication (pain, tingling & numbness in legs while walking)
- Intractable back pain interfering with activities of daily living.
As you get older, your spinal discs start to lose their water content, making them less flexible and more likely to rupture. A slipped disc occurs when the outer case of the disc splits, resulting in the gel inside to bulge out of the disc. The damaged disc can put pressure on the whole spinal cord or on a single nerve. A slipped disc can cause pain both in the area of the protruding disc and in the area of the body controlled by the nerve that the disc is pressing on. Smoking also plays a role as it causes the discs to lose their natural flexibility.
There are a number of factors that can put increased pressure and strain on your spine. These include:
• bending awkwardly
• Jobs that involve heavy or awkward lifting
• Jobs that involve lots of sitting, particularly driving
• being overweight or obese
• Weight bearing sports, such as weightlifting
• A traumatic injury to your back, such as a fall or accident
Situations such as these can weaken the disc tissue and can sometimes lead to a slipped disc.
An initial treatment will usually involve a combination of physiotherapy and medication to relieve the pain. Though in some severe cases like if the pain continues for more than 6 weeks, surgery may also be recommended to release the compressed nerve and remove a part of slipped disc. 
Delivered by several other devices like Cyberknife, Gamma Knife, Novalis, Primatom, X-Knife, Clinac IX, Synergy, TomoTherapy or Triology, it is a specialized type of external beam radiotherapy that targets very precisely at the tumor. This technique is suitable only for small and well defined tumors. The advantage of this radiotherapy is that it delivers the right amount of radiation to the cancer in a shorter amount of time than traditional treatments. Detailed imaging, computerized three dimensional treatment planning and precise treatment to deliver the radiation dose with extreme accuracy (i.e. stereotactically) is used for the treatment. A customized holder mask may be used to keep the body perfectly still during the treatment, or the treatment machine may have the ability to adjust the patient motion such as during breathing.
High or uncontrolled blood pressure can cause your blood vessels to rupture, leak or become narrow. It can also lead to the formation of blood clots in your brain, thereby restricting the blood flow and causing a stroke. The patient can sometimes also have a mini-stroke (Transient Ischemic Attack- TIA) that restricts the blood supply to the brain. This attack is often a warning that you are at a risk of a getting a serious stroke
Surgery is done if seizures occur in a small area of brain and does not interfere with your language, speech, hearing and vision. In case the seizures occur in that portion of brain that controls your speech, movement and cognitive abilities, the doctor will keep you awake during the surgery. They will keep asking you questions during the procedure. If the seizures occur in that part of brain from where it cannot be removed, your surgeon will do a multiple subpial transection (i.e. making several incisions in your brain)- this is primarily done to prevent seizures in spreading to the other parts if brain.
The cause of Parkinson's Disease is still unknown, although there is some evidence for the role of genetics, environmental factors (heavy metals, pesticides, head injury) or a combination of both. Directly inheriting the disease is quite rare. Only about 10 to 15 percent of all cases are genetic. The predominant symptoms that you can witness are:
- Tremor (shaking of limbs)
- Bradykinesia(slowness of activities)
- Change in gait (walking)
- Instability or tendency to fall and rigidity
- Stooped posture
The progression of these symptoms is variable in each patient and usually extends over 5-10 years. People with Parkinson's who seek expert care have better outcomes. They are at a lower risk of complications, have a better quality of life and even live longer. Parkinson’s is a life altering disease but not life threatening. If left untreated it can negatively impact the quality of life.  
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