Diabetes is a disease which affects the production and supply of insulin in the body. The food we eat is converted into glucose, a type of sugar. This sugar is then used as energy needed by our body to perform various activities. Glucose is then transported in our blood. In order for our muscles and other tissues to absorb glucose from our blood, we need a hormone called insulin. Without insulin, our bodies cannot obtain the necessary energy from food.
In case, a person is suffering from diabetes, his or her body doesn’t produce enough amount of insulin as required. This leads to increase in the amount of glucose in the blood. This high level of glucose or "high blood sugar" is called hyperglycemia. High levels of glucose in the blood can lead to serious complications. Diabetes is generally a chronic disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. There are mainly two types of diabetes.
- Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most often found in children, teens, or young adults. In this type, the body makes little or no insulin. Regular injections of insulin are required.
- Type 2 diabetes consists of most diabetes cases. It occurs most often in adulthood. However, due to high obesity rates, teens and young adults are also being diagnosed with it. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it.
Signs and Symptoms
There could be many signs and symptoms of high blood sugar including:
- Blurry vision
- Increased thirst
- Urinating often
- Weight loss
Insulin hormone is known to be the major cause of diabetes. Other causes are:
- Genetic defects of β-cell function
- Genetic defects in insulin processing or insulin action
- Exocrine pancreatic defects
- Growth hormone excess
When it comes to the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, doctors primarily suggest making lifestyle changes to ensure a happy life. It is also true that type 2 diabetes can be cured with weight-loss surgery.
- There is no cure for type 1 diabetes
- General treatment involves medicines, diet, and exercise that control blood sugar level and prevent symptoms and problems
- Controlled diet
- Insulin - Type 1 diabetes is generally treated with combinations of regular and NPH insulin, or synthetic insulin analogs
- Physical exercise
- Weight loss surgery
- Bariatric surgery