Ovarian cysts are sacs which can be filled with solid or fluid within or on the surface of ovary. These can be functional which disappears on its own and can be non-functional which needs treatment.
Ovarian cysts are of 2 types i.e. Functional & Non-functional which are categorized into several types, including:
Follicular cyst: The cysts occur when the follicles are not ruptured and grow during the menstrual cycle.
Corpus luteum cyst: These occur when the follicle releases the egg but seals up again and swells with fluid or blood instead of dissolving.
Dermoid cysts: This is a rare kind of ovarian cyst. It also contains the ovaries and hair, fat, and other tissues. These cysts develop from the embryonic cells
Cystadenomas: These also develop on the surface of an ovary. These sac-like structure majority contains mucous or watery material. These cysts are benign proliferative cysts. They can be cancerous & non-cancerous.
Endometriomas: These types of cysts develop due to a condition known as endometriosis. These are filled with chocolate colour fluid. In this condition, patient complain of severe pain abdomen during menstruation.
Cancerous Cysts: These cysts shows cancer cells. These have both solid & cystic area. Cells from these cysts can go to other body organs and spread to other body parts.
Usually, there are no noticeable symptoms of ovarian cysts as they are small in size. However, in some cases, the cysts can be larger, which may cause symptoms like:
Functional Cysts: It forms because of hormonal changes occurring during menstrual cycle. The ovaries grow a cyst-like structure known as follicles every month during ovulation. The follicles produce hormones estrogen and progesterone. The follicles rupture during the ovulation period and release an egg from the ovary into the fallopian tube. However, sometimes a follicle does not release an egg during ovulation. And instead, it continues to grow to form functional cysts. These cysts are usually harmless and often disappear on their own within two or three menstrual cycles.
Non-Functional Cysts: These cysts are not related to normal hormonal changes. These indicate the presence of disease.
Ovarian cysts might be found during your routine checkup. The doctor might detect an ovarian cyst during a pelvic examination. Your doctor might recommend tests to determine the cyst’s type depending on various factors. Some of them might include:
1. Hormone Test
2. USG TVS/Abdomen
3. CECT Pelvis
4. CE MRI Pelvis
5. PET CT Scan
The treatment of ovarian cyst depends upon the type and ovarian cyst size. Functional cysts usually do not need treatment. This is because it disappears within a certain period. However, if the cyst is recurring or significant in size, your doctor might suggest some treatment as per the ovarian cyst size for surgery. Non-functional syst always needs treatment.
Your doctor might recommend some medication to treat the disease after diagnosis the ovarian cyst size for surgery. In most cases, the doctor might recommend hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, to keep it from recurring.
Laparoscopic Surgery: In laparoscopic surgery a small (5 mm) cut is made on the abdominal wall and surgery is done with fine instruments.
Laparotomy Surgery: If the cyst is large or cancerous in nature, your doctor will perform laparotomy surgery. An incision is made on the abdomen in transverse or vertical direction & the disease is removed.
Torsion of ovarian cysts
Rupture of ovarian cysts
Infection of ovarian cysts
The long-term outlook is generally good for women with ovarian cysts. Most of the time, the cysts disappear within a few months. However, it may reoccur in premenopausal women or women with hormonal imbalance.