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Month Red Autoclave(Infected Plastic Waste) Yellow- Incineration(AnatomicalWaste & Soiled Waste) Blue Autoclave (Glass- Bottles) Black Cytotoxic- Incineration( Cytotoxic Contaminated Items) White- Sharp Total Bags Total Weight(In KG's)
  No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's)    
Apr-17 924 2963.50 954 2994.10 239 1017.30 103 279.20 1645 606.40 3865 7861.00
May-17 1175 4624.12 1028 3498.40 276 1524.34 87 195.01 1803 823.85 4369 10665.71
Jun-17 1060 4511.45 902 2886.66 293 1324.05 76 194.00 2057 1100.69 4388 10016.85
Jul-17                     0 0.00
Aug-17                     0 0.00
Sep-17                     0 0.00
Oct-17                     0 0.00
Nov-17                     0 0.00
Dec-17                     0 0.00
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Mar-18                     0 0.00
YTD 3159 12099.065 2884 9379.155 808 3865.69 266 668.705 5505 2530.94 12622 28543.555

Cardiac Sciences

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Clinical Directorate

For more info please call 8744 888 888 (Delhi – NCR) & 9988 422 333 (Chandigarh Tri-city), or mail at

Max Institute of Cardiac Sciences strives to provide patients with expert treatment and care. We believe in offering the patients with an ethical and open environment to recover. Our team of expert cardiologists and cardiac surgeons believes in carrying out an in-depth investigation of patient condition taking into account patient’s complete medical history, therefore strategizing a tailored treatment and recovery plan for each.

Our expertise in cardiac care helps us in caring for patients with heart disease by providing complete all-round care. From diagnosis, prevention, treatment, surgical care to cardiac rehabilitation and wellness services, we look after your heart A to Z.

Why Women are Different from Men at Heart-Even Electrically

June 10, 2015 0 45 2 minutes, 59 seconds read

Electrical Explanation for Gender Differences

The fact that heart of a woman is electrically wired differently from men should come as no surprise. The development of every part of the body is determined genetically, and modified by the sex hormones. The heart works through an electrical system that we can measure on the surface with the ECG.

Women Have a Faster Baseline Heart Rate than Men

On an average, women tend to have a faster baseline heart rate than men. This difference is seen in girls, as young as five years old.

Women’s ECG Readings may be Different

Women are more likely than men to be seriously affected by either congenital or acquired QT (a segment in ECG) prolongation which puts them at an increased risk for drug-induced torsades de pointes (a life threatening arrhythmia). The hormone (androgen and estrogen) levels may explain the gender differences in QT interval. Caution to be used in women when prescribing drugs like antibiotics, antifungals, antidepressants, anticonvulsants and antiarrhythmics that can precipitate QT prolongation as a side effect. It is not unusual to find congenital long QT syndrome as a cause of syncope and sudden death in young women.

Differences in abnormal heart rhythms in men and women

Delayed or missed diagnosis of an arrhythmia is a significant problem for women. Often, symptoms can be mistaken for other conditions including panic, stress, and anxiety and are usually not evaluated as cardiac problems.

  • PSVT – a rapid heart rate that originates from upper chamber of heart is more commonly seen in women, completely curable but commonly “missed” diagnosis.
  • Sinus Node Dysfunction – a slow heart rhythm that originates once the main pacemaker of heart becomes diseased, more commonly seen in women but often diagnosed late.
  • Atrial fibrillation - One of the most common irregular heart rhythms in women associated with valvular heart disease and an increased risk for stroke and cardiovascular death as compared to men older than age 75. However, women are less likely to receive anticoagulation and ablation procedures compared to men.
  • Sudden cardiac death (SCD) - It is a sudden, unexpected death caused by loss of heart function. SCD occurs almost as frequently in women as men and is related to about 400,000 deaths per year in women worldwide. It has been seen that while the majority of women who had SCD had no prior history of cardiac disease before death, they had at least one cardiac risk factor (smoking, hypertension or diabetes). Family history also played a role in increased risk if one parent died of heart disease before age 60. The majority of SCD in women was related to an abnormality of the heart rhythm (88%). This reinforces the need for careful screening of heart disease risk factors in women and managing these concerns even without symptoms being present.
  • Paradoxical Scenario-Both men and women have been shown to derive an equal survival benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) (both devices used in heart failure scenario), although these devices are significantly underutilized in women. Women also appear to have a better response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in terms of reduced numbers of hospitalizations and more robust reverse ventricular remodeling. Electrophysiologists are cardiologists with extensive specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of heart rhythm problems. Electrophysiology department at Max Healthcare Superspeciality Hospital, New Delhi headed by a Women Cardiac Electrophysiologist, Dr Vanita Arora performs over 1000 procedures every year and the program has grown into one of the most experienced lab in the country. We have become the "go to" resource within the field of arrhythmia management and care.

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Be Heart Healthy

April 9, 2014 0 51 1 minute, 33 seconds read

Every 36 seconds, one person dies from heart disease. Therefore, it's imperative to learn all you can about heart health. What causes a heart attack? It occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked, often by a blood clot.

This happens because coronary arteries that supply the heart with blood slowly become thicker and harder from a build-up of fat, cholesterol and other substances called plaque.

If the plaque breaks open and a blood clot is formed that blocks the blood flow, a heart attack occurs. Here are some of the symptoms of a heart attack: Uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, or pain in the centre of your chest. It lasts more than a few minutes, or goes away and comes back.Pain or discomfort in one or both arms, your back, neck, jaw or stomach Shortness of breath with or without chest discomfort You or someone you know has chest discomfort, especially with one or more of the above signs, don't wait more than five minutes before calling for help. Call the emergency medical services (EMS) in your area or get to a hospital immediately.

How can I recover from it? You may only be in the hospital for a few days but your recovery involves making changes in your daily life. Start by modifying your lifestyle to reduce your risk of having another heart attack.

Don't smoke, and avoid inhaling second hand smoke as well Maintain a healthy diet that's low in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol and salt Exercise at least 30 minutes on most or all days of the week. Aim to keep your weight in the normal range Take your medicines as prescribed and control your blood sugar if you have diabetes Talk with your doctor about what physical activity you should be indulging in and avoiding altogether Joining a cardiac rehabilitation programme can help too.

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Indian Youth in the radar of heart diseases due to diabetes

November 14, 2018 0 3 minutes, 16 seconds read

Diabetes is caused when the blood glucose levels in the body is higher than normal. Body breaks the food into glucose and carries it to all the cells of the body which is converted to energy using insulin (hormone). There are two types of diabetes namely Type 1 – when body doesn’t make enough insulin and type 2- when body doesn’t use insulin properly.

The higher the person’s blood sugar level is the higher the chances of developing heart diseases. Compared to people who do not have diabetes, people having diabetes are at an elevated risk of heart disease even at young age.

Diabetes affects heart disease risk in three major ways.

Just like smoking, hypertension and high cholesterol, diabetes itself is a serious risk factor for heart disease. People with T2DM are at same risk of suffering a cardiac arrest or heart attack like those who have history of heart attack.

Diabetes when combined with other risk factors like obesity, overweight and metabolic syndrome causes harmful physical changes to the heart. People with history of cardiac disease treatment like bypass grafting, angioplasty etc tend to have less success if the blood sugar level is uncontrolled.

Diabetes increases the risk of heart diseases as it raises the cholesterol levels in the blood and hardens the arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis. Moreover, diabetics are overweight which furthermore worsens it and raises the risk to heart diseases.

  • 1. Coronary Heart Disease – with raised cholesterol levels in diabetics, plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries that supplies oxygen rich blood to the heart. This plaque narrows the coronary arteries and reduces the blood flow to the heart muscles and can lead to clot formation. This lead to blockage of blood flow causing chest pain, irregular heartbeats, heart attack and even death.
  • 2. Heart Failure – when the heart is unable to pump blood to meet body’s requirements, it puts load on heart muscles leading to heart failure. This doesn’t mean that the heart has stopped working but its pumping ability has reduced. This is a serious medical condition that can make you easily tired, limit your activities and weaken the heart muscles with time.
  • 3. Cardiomyopathy – this disease damages the structure and functioning of the heart in those who have diabetes. The disease can lead to heart failure and abnormal beat.

What causes heart disease due to diabetes?

  • 1. Atherosclerosis – plaque builds up inside the arteries and progresses with age. Following factors damage the inner layer of the coronary arteries –
    • High Blood Pressure
    • Smoking
    • Uncontrolled diabetes
    • High cholesterol levels in the blood
  • 2. Metabolic Syndrome – a group of risk factors that raises CHD and T2DM
    • Obesity causes changes in body fat and the way body utilizes insulin.
    • Chronic inflammation raises the risk of CHD and heart diseases

Controllable risk factors

  • Unhealthy cholesterol levels in the blood – high levels of LDL and low levels of HDL
  • Hypertension – high levels of blood pressure (above 140/90mm Hg)
  • Smoking – damages and tightens the blood vessels, diminishing the blood supply to all parts of the body.
  • Obesity – leads to diabetes and other heart diseases
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Stress
  • Following an unhealthy diet.

Risk factors that cannot be controlled

  • Age- with increasing age the risk of heart diseases also doubles
  • Gender – at younger age men are more prone to heart diseases than women
  • Family history of heart disease
  • Preeclampsia

How to treat heart disease due to diabetes?

The main goal to treat heart disease due to diabetes includes:

  • Controlling diabetes and high blood pressure & Cholestrol
  • Relieving chest pain and heart disease symptom
  • Preventing or delaying heart disease complications
  • Repairing heart and coronary artery damage

Treatment involves lifestyle changes, medicines and surgical procedures.

1. Lifestyle Changes

  • Follow healthy balanced diet
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight
  • Being Physically Active
  • Quitting Smoking
  • Managing Stress

2. Medicines

  • Treatment for Heart Failure
  • Blood Sugar Control
  • Blood Pressure Control
  • Cholestrol Control

Controlling blood sugar levels is good for heart health.

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Dr. Vikas Kumar Keshri

Dr. Vikas Kumar Keshri
Senior Consultant – CTVS
Dr. Vikas Kumar Kesri
  • Association of Surgeons of India (ASI)
  • Indian Association of Cardiothoracic Surgeons (IACTS)
  • Indian Society of Thoracic Surgeons and Trust (ISTST)
  • Society of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Surgeons (SPCHS)
  • Fellow of American College of Surgeons (ACS, USA)
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Biographical Sketch: 

Dr. Vikas Keshri has been trained in cardiothoracic and vascular surgery at the prestigious All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). Over the past eight years, he has been associated with high volume cardiothoracic centres performing complex congenital, aortic, minimally invasive as well as adult cardiac procedures including heart transplant.


Work Experience: 
  • Senior Resident: All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
  • Consultant CTVS: The Mission Hospital, Durgapur (WB)
Education & Training: 
  • M. Ch. (CTVS) - All India Institute of Medical Sciences, (AIIMS) New Delhi
  • M. S. (General Surgery) - T. N. Medical College & BYL Nair Ch. Hospital, Mumbai
  • M.B.B.S. - Govt. Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai
Speciality Interest: 
  • Beating heart CABG
  • Valve repair surgery
  • Surgery for congenital heart disease
  • Paediatric heart surgery
  • Minimally invasive cardiac surgery
  • Heart Failure Surgery and Heart Transplant
Duration Of OPD: 

   Max Super Speciality Hospital, Patparganj

  • Mon, Tues, Thurs, Fri , Sat : 2:00pm – 5:00pm
  • Wednesday 12:00pm – 4:00pm

Everything You Should Know About the Types of Heart Attacks

June 1, 2018 0 117 5 minutes, 2 seconds read

Heart diseases are highly common throughout the world; however, the rising figures are a cause for concern. Every heart condition is critical and needs immediate medical intervention.

Heart attacks pose a serious health risk and are always life-threatening. They occur when there is a blockage in the coronary arteries which leads to disruption in blood flow to or from the heart. The blockage can cause permanent damage to the heart.

Medical Dictionary – A heart attack is also known as myocardial infarction.

Types of Heart Attacks

Heart attacks are a form of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). In this syndrome, the arteries carrying the blood to the heart get blocked, leading to a heart attack. Since blood also carries oxygen and nutrients to the rest of the body, a heart attack can stop this supply causing permanent organ damage.

There are five types of heart attacks:

  1. STEMI (ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction)
  2. NSTEMI (non-ST segment myocardial infarction)
  3. Coronary Artery Spasm (also known as ‘Prinzmetal's angina)
  4. Stable Angina
  5. Unstable Angina

Medical Fact – ST segment is a flat section of ECG that represents the interval between ventricular depolarization and repolarization. Heart attack or Myocardial Infarction is the main cause of an abnormality in ST section of the EKG (electrocardiogram) – elevation (STEMI) or depression (NSTEMI).



An ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is the most severe type of heart attack in which the coronary artery is completely blocked. The blocked artery prevents blood from reaching a large area of the heart muscle. A STEMI heart attack causes progressive heart damage and requires immediate medical intervention.


  • Sharp pain in the centre of the chest
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea
  • Pain in jaw, neck, and arms
  • Anxiety
  • Light-headedness


STEMI is a critical situation and requires emergency revascularization – the restoration of blood supply through the blocked artery. The process of revascularization is achieved by either first giving thrombolytics intravenously or conducting a primary angioplasty where a catheter with a balloon is placed inside the blocked artery. The balloon is pushed to open the blocked artery which restores the blood supply. Furthermore, a stent is placed at the site to prevent further blockage.

Medical Dictionary – Thrombolytics are medications that are also known as clot busters as they dissolve the clots in the arteries.



NSTEMI or non-ST segment myocardial infarction is a type of heart attack that does not show any change in the ST segment elevation on the electrocardiogram. In this type, the coronary artery is only partially blocked, and blood flow is severely restricted. Even though these types of heart attacks are less severe than STEMI heart attacks, they can cause permanent damage.

Typically, a coronary angiography shows the degree of blockage in the artery in case of an NSTEMI heart attack. A blood test will confirm elevated levels of troponin – a protein that regulates muscle contraction.


The symptoms of NSTEMI heart attack are similar to that of a STEMI heart attack. However, a person can experience dizziness, sweating and pronounced discomfort in the chest.


Cardiologists use a GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) score to determine the extent of risk in a patient. The score uses 8 parameters to calculate risk, including:

  • Heart rate
  • Age
  • Systolic blood pressure
  • ST segment deviation in ECG
  • Serum creatinine level
  • Elevated cardiac maker
  • Killip classification
  • Cardiac arrest at admission

After a thorough evaluation of patient’s present condition, the cardiologist will suggest the right treatment options. The cardiologist will prescribe medications to low-risk patients where the blockage can be controlled and minimized through drugs.

Medical Fact – Killip classification is a system used for patients with acute myocardial infarction. It takes the development of heart failure and physical examination into account to predict and stratify the risk of mortality.


Coronary Artery Spasm

Also known as silent heart attacks, coronary artery spasm happens when the artery wall suddenly tightens, which restricts the blood flow to the heart. When the blood flow is restricted due to tightening of muscles, it leads to chest pain. However, when the blood flow is cut altogether, it leads to a heart attack. The symptoms of coronary artery spasm do not cause permanent damage, and this condition may come and go. Furthermore, since there is no blood clot or build-up of plaque in this condition, an angiogram cannot be used to check the arteries for blockages.


The symptoms include:

  • Occasional light chest pain that only occurs during rest and lasts from 5 to 30 minutes
  • A feeling of constriction
  • Chest tightness
  • Pain that spreads from chest to arms, neck or jawbone


This type of heart attack can be treated using medications such as calcium channel blockers and nitrates.

Medical Dictionary – Coronary Artery Spasm is also known as prinzmetal angina. Angina is chest pain, tightness or discomfort in the chest.


Stable Angina

Angina is a type of chest pain that occurs when blood flow to the heart is reduced. When there is a reduction in blood flow, the heart will not get enough oxygen which can lead to a heart attack.

Stable angina is also known as angina pectoris and is a predictable pattern of chest pain. It occurs gradually and is usually triggered by strenuous activity or emotional stress.


Unstable Angina

Another form of angina, unstable angina occurs suddenly and gets worse over time leading to a heart attack. Patients suffering from unstable angina are at a higher risk of getting a heart attack. The most common cause of unstable angina is coronary artery disease due to atherosclerosis – which is the buildup of plaque in the walls of the arteries.


A Word from Max Healthcare

Heart attacks can be life-threatening, and people must never overlook any symptoms involving cardiac diseases. If immediate medical attention is provided, most heart conditions are highly treatable. We at Max Healthcare have a dedicated team of cardiologists and cardiac surgeons who specialize in treating all ailments related to the heart like CVDs, congenital heart defects, coronary artery diseases and pulmonary heart failure. Furthermore, our doctors also specialize in treating end-stage heart failure patients. Max Healthcare promotes a healthy and active lifestyle.

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Do You Know About Beating Heart Bypass Surgery?

May 25, 2018 0 156 2 minutes, 52 seconds read

Treating blocked heart arteries through cardiac bypass surgery has been one of the most effective surgical procedures used by the cardiac surgeons. With the advent of medical sciences, the surgery itself has witnessed various transformations in its procedure.

Most of these surgeries are performed traditionally, i.e. by making a 6 to 8-inch incision in the chest while using a heart-lung machine that takes over the function of the heart. However, new procedures like beating heart bypass surgery are also becoming a popular treatment option. Let us know more about this surgery and look at how it has proved to be beneficial in the field of cardiology.

What is a Beating Heart Bypass Surgery?

Also known as off-pump coronary artery bypass, it is a type of surgery performed to treat coronary heart diseases. The main highlight of this cardiac bypass surgery is that it is performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (heart-lung machine). This means that the heart continues to beat while the doctors perform the heart bypass surgery procedure. Surgeons use devices called stabilisers to stabilise the part of the heart needed to be bypassed.

This method was introduced to reduce the complications and side effects that occur after a traditional cardiac bypass surgery. Some of the complications include stroke, temporary memory loss and bleeding among others. Moreover, as per the research, off-pump surgery also reduces recovery time and the need for blood transfusion.

What Happens in Beating Heart Bypass Surgery?

Before the Surgery

To ensure that the patient is an ideal candidate for beating heart bypass surgery, the doctors perform various tests which include chest X-Rays, blood tests, electrocardiogram (ECG) and coronary angiogram. It is only after evaluating the results of these tests that doctors give the go-ahead to beating heart cardiac bypass surgery procedure.

Before the surgery, the patient is also acquainted with the surgery team and given information about the heart bypass surgery procedure. Our team of cardiac surgeons at Max Healthcare understands the concerns and doubts that can arise in a patient’s mind and hence are ever-ready to guide them through the procedure.

During the Surgery

The patient is given general anaesthesia and a breathing tube at the beginning of the surgery. Unlike the traditional cardiac bypass surgery, no heart-lung machine is used, and the heart continues to beat during the procedure. The surgeons make an incision, and the breastbone is divided to access the heart. In case of minimally invasive cardiac surgery, the surgeon makes a small incision.

The surgeons harvest veins or arteries from other parts of the body for grafts. When the surgeons attach the grafts, they use a stabilization device to keep the small section of the heart still. At times, a heart positioner is also used. Once the grafting is done, the surgeons sew the incision together. This surgery may last for about three to six hours depending on the number of arteries that need to be treated.

After the Surgery

Once the surgery is complete, the patient is shifted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for close monitoring and observation. If the doctors find the condition stabilized, they shift the patient to another unit for some time until the discharge. As compared to the traditional cardiac bypass surgery, beating heart bypass surgery leads to a shorter hospital stay.

At the time of discharge, we at Max Healthcare, also guide our patients about the preventive measures and healthy lifestyle changes that can improve their recovery rate effectively. 

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