In an allogeneic transplant, stem cells are taken from a compatible donor and given to the patient in order to treat their illness and rebuild their immune system. A patient's own stem cells are used in an autologous stem cell transplant, which is different from an allogeneic stem cell transplant.
The secret to a successful allogeneic stem cell transplant is finding a compatible donor. A donor is frequently a sibling, brother, or another family member. Donor registries are frequently utilised to find the best match through tissue typing.
Allogeneic bone marrow transplant
How is an Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Performed?
After high-intensity chemotherapy or radiation, an allogeneic stem cell transplant includes putting the donor's healthy stem cells into the patient's body. A related or unrelated donor may provide the given stem cells.
Chemotherapy and, occasionally, radiation therapy are given to the patient as part of a conditioning regimen before an allogeneic stem cell transplant. To eliminate any remaining cancer cells in the body, this conditioning treatment is administered. In order to prevent the body from rejecting the donor cells after the transplant, this helps to weaken the patient's immune system. Additionally, it enables the donor cells to travel through the bloodstream to the bone marrow, where they can start to multiply and create new blood cells like red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.
If a transplant is successful, donor stem cells can take the place of bone marrow stem cells. It might also offer the patient's ailment the sole long-term solution. The creation of a new immune system by the transplanted cells after they engraft in the patient is one of the advantages of allogeneic stem cell therapy. White blood cells made from the donated cells attack any cancer cells that are still present in the patient's body. This phenomenon is known as the "graft-versus-tumour impact," and it might be even more significant than the extremely rigorous conditioning procedure used to eradicate cancer cells. Only an allogeneic stem cell transplant can provide this benefit.
Preparation for allogeneic stem cell transplant
If you qualify for a stem cell transplant, your doctor will do tests to make sure you can handle the potential adverse effects of the surgery, such as the intense chemotherapy that comes before the transplant.
These tests could consist of:
CBC/ KFT/ LFT/ Viral Marker/ CMV staining Bone Marrow test with MRI/ Whole Body PET Scan/ PFT/ HRCT
Dental & ENT clearance
An electrocardiogram test evaluates your heart beat.
An echocardiogram measures how well your heart is pumping.
Complete blood count (CBC) testing counts and analyse your blood cells. A blood test for kidney or liver function will also be performed by your healthcare professional.
If you have cancer, your healthcare provider may perform a biopsy in order to examine your cancerous cells for new changes and assess the likelihood that your cancer will return after a transplant.
Preparation before the surgery
To choose the best course of treatment for the patient's condition, the doctor will do a number of thorough medical exams. If the doctor suggests a BMT, extensive evaluations and testing will be performed. The phase of preparation is what it is called.
Certain medications are used to enhance the synthesis of stem cells in the blood for autologous bone marrow transplants. It helps to make sure that enough stem cells are obtained during this time.
Procedure for operation
A long, thin tube called a central venous catheter is put into one of the body's principal veins.
The source of bone marrow cells is chosen based on the situation. When a patient's own stem cells are employed, the blood is processed using an apheresis device to isolate and collect stem cells from the blood. Stem cells can be obtained from the bone marrow, blood for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
You will start receiving high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy if a bone marrow transplant is necessary to restore bone marrow that has been harmed by anti-cancer therapy. At this stage, patients receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy may encounter side effects from these therapies. However, the medication also addresses these side effects.
Once the difficulties are resolved, bone marrow transplantation is carried out when the body is immunosuppressed.
What type of procedure is an allogeneic stem cell transplant?
The procedure is less invasive and safe to do.
What is the follow-up procedure?
The follow-up procedures include regular consultations with experts. They will ask you questions about your health and your conditions before your surgery. The physician will make sure that your immune system is regaining its strength and that you are free of any side effects related to the high-dose chemotherapy and radiation therapy you received prior to your transplant.
Numerous dangers can arise after a bone marrow transplant. While some recipients of a bone marrow transplant have minor issues, others may develop severe problems that necessitate medical attention or hospitalisation. Complications can occasionally be fatal.
Following a bone marrow transplant, following problems could arise:
Graft versus host disease
Failure of the stem cell transplant (graft rejection).
Organ injury (VOD, Mucositis, Hemorrhagic Cystitis.
Your medical professional can describe the potential risks associated with a bone marrow transplant. In order to determine whether a bone marrow transplant is the best option for you, you can analyse the risks and advantages together.
The recovery process after an allogeneic stem cell transplant
Although the stem cells have engrafted, it will take some time for your body to return to its pre-injury state. This might take six months. While many stem cell transplant adverse effects pass quickly, a few may linger for a while. Some adverse reactions, such as graft versus host disease (GvHD), linger for weeks, months, or even years following the transplant.
Recovery from the transplantation procedure, including pre-transplantation conditioning, may take many months. Your immune system may need a year or two to heal while your new stem cells create new blood cells.