Heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure, refers to an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood needed by the body tissues, due to weakening or hardening of the heart muscles. Although heart failure often begins at the left side, it may involve pumping chambers on either side of the heart or both. It may occur progressively as a complication of other heart diseases or unexpectedly due to sudden injury to the heart muscles.
Causes of heart failure include:
Narrowing of the blood vessels or arteries in the heart (coronary artery disease)
High blood pressure
Heart defects that may present at the time of birth (congenital heart disease)
Infections Long term use of specific medications (e.g. chemotherapy for cancer)
Genetic heart diseases
Too fast or too slow heartbeats
Diabetes Thyroid diseases AIDS Accumulation of iron or proteins in the body
Following are the types of heart failure:
Left-sided heart failure – causes difficulty in breathing
Right-sided heart failure – causes swelling, especially legs
Systolic heart failure – blood pumping problems
Diastolic heart failure –blood filling problems
Heart failure may cause the following symptoms:
Difficulty in breathing
Swollen legs and feet
Getting tired easily
Severe coughing with foamy or bloody mucus
Frequent urge to urinate, especially at night
Accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
Unexpected weight gain
Based on the symptoms revealed and its severity, heart failure is categorized as:
Class I – No symptoms
Class II– Does not interfere with daily routine but may cause fatigue on exertion.
Class III – Interrupts daily activities causing various symptoms
Class IV – Causes severe symptoms like shortness of breath even if one is at rest
Max Institute of Heart and Vascular Sciences (MIHVS) is one of the best heart centres in India, at Max Hospitals, India. We provide treatment for conditions like heart defects, congenital heart disease, pulmonary heart failure, and coronary artery diseases.
With a dedicated team of world class experts and state of the art operation theatres, catheterization labs and other cardiac care technologies, the Institute is a one stop destination for all kinds of cardiac treatments and surgical management of diseases of the heart, lungs and blood vessels.
Cardiac Health Check-ups
Invasive and Interventional Cardiology
Electrophysiology, Pacemaker and
Acute MI Service with Control
Comprehensive management of
Abdominal and Descending Thoracic
Aneurysm, Varicose Veins
ECMO Heart Hole Surgery (ASD, VSD, PDA)
Paediatric Cardiology and Paediatric Cardiac Surgery
Vascular Intervention and Surgeries
Surgery for Stroke Prevention
Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD)
At Max Institute of Heart and Vascular Sciences, we are known for providing excellent treatment for various heart issues. We have modern diagnostic machines that give accurate results.
Some standard diagnostic tests include:
Assessment of Medical History
Imaging Tests (Chest X-ray, CT Scan, MRI)
Max Institute of Heart and Vascular Sciences is a tertiary care centre at Max Hospitals, India. It is equipped with cutting-edge technology that offers cardiac care programs to patients. We also provide an alternative treatment for end-stage heart failure patients with procedures like Pacemaker, ACD, CRT, Heart Hole surgeries (ASD, VSD, PDA), Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, Angioplasty/Angiography. Our hospitals are equipped with state-of-the-art Cath Labs, operation theatres, and several other heart care technologies.
Although heart failure is a severe condition, most of its causes can be reversed with practical treatment approaches.
Treatment strategies may include:
Drugs and medications: The doctor may prescribe several medications or combination of medications to improve the underlying condition and overall symptoms. E.g. Medicines to reduce BP, correct heart rhythm, strengthen the heart muscles, to treat obstructed breathing, and many more.
Coronary bypass surgery: It is the procedure of bypassing the blocked blood vessel with the help of blood vessels from other parts of the body, mostly from the leg. This surgery enables free blood flow through the heart.
Surgery to correct structural heart defects: Usually, valve defects lead to heart failure. Minor defects often get resolved with surgery, but in those with severely altered structure, replacement of faulty valves with artificial valves may be needed.
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs): It is an artificial device placed under the skin in the chest area and connected to the heart. It helps to regulate and adjust the heartbeats to the normal rhythm.
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT): It helps the heart chambers to pump the blood efficiently and uniformly.
Mechanical Circulatory Support (MCS): Ventricular assist devices (VADs) can be placed in the abdomen and connected to the heart to keep the blood pumping and flowing through the body tissues. It is especially useful to improve survival chances and quality of life in patients waiting for the heart transplant and/or those with end-stage heart failure but not eligible for transplant.
Heart transplant: At Max Hospital, we have a team of the best heart specialists in India who specialize in treating heart failure through a heart transplant. When all other approaches fail to improve the symptoms, the doctor may suggest replacement of weakened heart with a healthy heart from a matching donor.