Hepatitis B: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments & Medications | Max Hospital
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Bio Medical Waste Report For Shalimar Bagh

Month Red Autoclave(Infected Plastic Waste) Yellow- Incineration(AnatomicalWaste & Soiled Waste) Blue Autoclave (Glass- Bottles) Black Cytotoxic- Incineration( Cytotoxic Contaminated Items) White- Sharp Total Bags Total Weight(In KG's)
  No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's) No. of Bags Weight (in KG's)    
Apr-17 924 2963.50 954 2994.10 239 1017.30 103 279.20 1645 606.40 3865 7861.00
May-17 1175 4624.12 1028 3498.40 276 1524.34 87 195.01 1803 823.85 4369 10665.71
Jun-17 1060 4511.45 902 2886.66 293 1324.05 76 194.00 2057 1100.69 4388 10016.85
Jul-17                     0 0.00
Aug-17                     0 0.00
Sep-17                     0 0.00
Oct-17                     0 0.00
Nov-17                     0 0.00
Dec-17                     0 0.00
Jan-18                     0 0.00
Feb-18                     0 0.00
Mar-18                     0 0.00
YTD 3159 12099.065 2884 9379.155 808 3865.69 266 668.705 5505 2530.94 12622 28543.555

Hepatitis B

Clinical Directorate

For more info please call 8744 888 888 (Delhi – NCR) & 9988 422 333 (Chandigarh Tri-city), or mail at homecare@maxhealthcare.com


Hepatitis B is the most common liver infection in the world and is caused by the hepatitis B virus. The hepatitis B virus enters the body and travels through the blood to the liver. In the liver, it attaches to the liver cells and multiplies. Although the patient may not have any problems at this phase, multiplication of the virus triggers a response from the body’s immune system.

Hepatitis B infection can lead to cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), liver failure or even liver cancer unless diagnosed and managed early.

There are probably 350 - 400 million people with chronic (lifelong) hepatitis B infection worldwide.

Hepatitis B infection is considered to be ’acute‘ in the first 6 months after infection. If hepatitis B virus tests (HBsAg) are positive after 6 months, this is now a ‘chronic’ (long term) hepatitis B infection, which may last a lifetime.


Symptoms of acute hepatitis B

Symptoms resulting from acute hepatitis B infection are common, with jaundice occurring approximately 12 weeks after initial infection.

The symptoms of acute hepatitis B include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Tiredness
  • Abdominal pain
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Jaundice

Many people with acute hepatitis B have no symptoms and never realize they had the infection. A small number of those with acute hepatitis B become very sick in a short period of time. This happens if there is massive damage to the liver and it stops working. This is called acute liver failure.

Symptoms of chronic hepatitis B

Most people with chronic hepatitis B do not have any symptoms of infection so that they feel healthy and may not be aware they are infected. However, other s may experience symptoms, which are similar to those experienced with other forms of viral hepatitis. These can include:

  • Tiredness, depression and irritability
  • Pain in the liver (upper, right side of abdomen)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Joint aches and pains.People with chronic hepatitis B have a significantly increased risk of developing liver cancer.


Those who have immunity and normal LFTs do not need treatment. People who are chronically infected but do not have any liver damage also do not need treatment but need close monitoring. However, if a person has liver damage they should consider having treatment for hepatitis B. The decision on when to start treatment is complex and should be made in consultation with a gastroenterologist / hepatologist.

The most common are anti-viral medications taken as tablets each day for a year or longer:

  • Lamivudine : There are almost no side effects to Lamivudine, however a significant concern is the possible development of hepatitis B virus mutations and antiviral drug resistance after long-term use.
  • Adefovir : There are almost no side effects except for the possibility of developing virus mutations and antiviral drug resistance.
  • Entecavir (Baraclude) : Entevavir has potent activity against chronic hepatitis B. There are almost no side effects except for the possibility of developing virus mutations and antiviral drug resistance.
  • Tenofovir (Viread) : Tenofovir has potent activity against chronic hepatitis B. It is particularly useful in patients who have developed drug resistance to other medications.

Treatment aims are to stop the hepatitis B virus from multiplying, or to reduce the rate of multiplication as much as possible. This decreases the risk of serious liver disease developing later in life and makes it possible for the liver to repair some of the damage and to work better. However, it is very rare that any of these medications will cure hepatitis B infection.

The main side effect of the antiviral tablets is sometimes the hepatitis B virus mutates (changes) during the course of treatment, which means the antiviral tablets are not as effective against the new form of the virus. This is called antiviral resistance.

During treatment, the patient’s blood tests are monitored very carefully to look for signs of antiviral resistance. If there are signs of resistance such as elevated liver enzymes and high levels of hepatitis B virus in the blood, the antivirals may be changed.

  • Consider being vaccinated
  • Practice safe sex (use a condom)
  • Wash hands after touching blood or body fluids
  • Wear disposable gloves if giving someone first aid, or cleaning up blood or body fluids
  • Avoid sharing toothbrushes, razors, needles, syringes, personal hygiene items or any object that may come into contact with blood or body fluids
  • Use new and sterile needles / syringes for each injection
  • Cover all cuts and open sores with a band aid or bandage
  • Wipe up any blood spills and then clean the area with bleaching powder
  • Throw away personal items such as tissues, menstrual pads, and bandages in a sealed plastic bag.
  • Limit or avoid alcohol
  • Do not smoke
  • Eat a healthy, well-balanced diet

Those who have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus and who have not been vaccinated should receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) within 72 hours of exposure, and a dose of hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible or within 7 days.

What are non-cancerous liver tumors?

Non-cancerous (benign) tumors are quite common and usually do not produce symptoms. Often, they are not diagnosed until an ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is performed. There are several types of benign liver tumors, including the following:

Hepatocellular adenoma : This benign tumor occurs most often in women of childbearing age. Most of these tumors remain undetected. Sometimes, an adenoma will rupture and bleed into the abdominal cavity, requiring surgery. Adenomas rarely become cancerous.

Hemangioma :This type of benign tumor is a mass of abnormal blood vessels. Up to five percent of adults have small liver hemangiomas that cause no symptoms. Treatment is usually not required. Sometimes, infants with large liver hemangiomas require surgery to prevent clotting and heart failure.

What are cancerous liver tumors?

Cancerous (malignant) tumors in the liver have either originated in the liver (primary liver cancer) or spread from cancer sites elsewhere in the body (metastatic liver cancer). Most cancerous tumors in the liver are metastatic.

What is hepatoma (primary liver cancer)?

Also called hepatocellular carcinoma, this is the most common form of primary liver cancer. Chronic infection with hepatitis B and C increases the risk of developing this type of cancer. Other causes include cancer-causing substances, alcoholism, and chronic liver cirrhosis.

Symptoms of a Liver hepatoma

The following are the most common symptoms of a liver hepatoma. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Large mass can be felt in upper, right part of abdomen
  • Fever
  • Jaundice – yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The symptoms of a liver hepatoma may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

How Is Liver Hepatoma Diagonosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for a liver hepatoma may include the following:

Liver function tests: A series of special blood tests that can determine if the liver is functioning properly.

Abdominal ultrasound (Also called sonography.) – a diagnostic imaging technique, which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs of the abdomen such as the liver, spleen, and kidneys and to assess blood flow through various vessels.

Computed tomography scan (CT or CAT scan) -a diagnostic imaging procedure using a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays.

Hepatic arteriography – x-rays taken after a substance in injected into the hepatic artery.

Liver biopsy:  A procedure in which tissue samples from the liver are removed (with a needle or during surgery) from the body for examination under a microscope.

Treatment Of Hepatoma

Physicians will be able to determine the right treatment for patients suffering from liver hepatoma based on:

  • Age, overall health, and medical history
  • Extent of the disease
  • Tolerance of specific medicines, procedures, or therapies
  • Expectations for the course of the disease
  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment may include:

  • Surgery
  • Surgery may be necessary to remove cancerous tissue, as well as nearby non- cancerous tissue. Total surgical removal of the liver lobe or removal of segments of the liver may be performed.
  • Radiation therapy
  • Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays to kill or shrink cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy
  • Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells.
  • Liver transplantation
  • Transplant the whole liver with a new one from a donor.

Max Hospital is one of the best liver hospitals in India.

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