In multiple sclerosis, the communication within the brain, and between the brain and body is disrupted. It is caused by damage to the myelin sheath, a protective covering that surrounds nerve cells. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, unpredictable and often disabling disease which affects the central nervous system, spinal cord and optic nerves. It is categorized as an autoimmune disease caused by the immune system attacking and damaging the nervous system.
Following are the types of multiple sclerosis:
- Relapsing-remitting (RRMS): Patients have occurrences of symptoms, with or without recovery, but between attacks, there is no interval worsening.
- Secondary-Progressive (SPMS): This stage comes a few years after RRMS and the pattern changes from a relapsing one to a progressive one in between the attacks.
- Primary-Progressive (PPMS): Gradual onset from the beginning with no attacks.
- Progressive-Relapsing (PRMS): One of the rare forms of multiple sclerosis, it begins with a progressive course which later transforms into developing attacks.
- Fulminant: A rare yet extremely severe and rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis.