Urinary stones are a group of chemical substances present within the body. Usually, urine contains many dissolved chemical substances. A specific concentration of these chemicals in the urine causes them to crystallise, thus leading to formation of stones. They may be smooth, jagged or spiky and can be single or multiple. This disorder is present more frequently in middle-aged people, with men being afflicted more often than women.
Urinary stones can be present anywhere along the urinary tract starting from the kidneys to the urethra but are more commonly located in the kidney and the ureter. Depending on the chemical composition, the stones may vary in consistency, size and number. The various types are:
Urinary stones are amongst the most painful disorders a person suffers from. These stones can lead to blockage of urinary flow that leads to a build-up of toxins and destruction of tissues, thus causing severe kidney damage.
The exact cause of urinary stone formation is not known. However, there is a high correlation between certain factors and incidence of urinary stones.
Prior history of urinary stones
Family history of urinary stones
Inadequate fluid intake
Dietary conditions - high intake of protein, minerals & salts like oxalate, calcium etc.
Conditions that block or reduce the flow of urine e.g. enlarged prostate, stricture urethra etc.
Urinary tract infection
Certain diseases like arthritis, gout, thyroid disorders etc.
When it comes to urinary stone, sometimes, there might be no symptoms at all. But, very often urinary stones are present with typical symptoms depending on their location, size and shape.
The common symptoms are:
Severe gripping pain, starting from the flank, waist or back and spreading to the groin, urinary outlet or leg of the affected side.
Haematuria - passage of blood in the urine
Increased frequency of urination
Nausea and vomiting
Pain during urination (stinging, burning)
At Max Healthcare, we offer comprehensive treatment for various urological conditions. Our state-of-the-art facilities, we specialize in providing services in the areas of urology, uro-oncology, reconstructive urology, robotic surgery, kidney transplantation & laparoscopic andrology services, among others. Some of our exceptional services include laparoscopic urological surgery, ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation, renal transplantation, uro-oncology, reconstructive surgery of the urinary tract, and laser urological procedures. Additionally, we have the intuitive surgical Da Vinci XI Robotic System to perform highly complex urological procedures like radical cystectomy, radical prostatectomy, partial nephrectomy, etc. All urological surgeries are performed laparoscopically to ensure great precision for improved patient outcomes.
Considered as the best urology hospital in India, we incorporate the latest advancements of the medical field to offer the highest clinical governance standards and patient-centric care. We firmly believe in delivering quality care, support and reassurance to our patients. Our dedicated team of leading urologists provides the most advanced treatments using cutting-edge technology based on international standards. They have years of experience under the belt, including international level experience and exposure.
During your visit to Max Hospitals, your physician will usually run a series of diagnostic tests. These tests will assist your physician in determining the type of stone and its location. Accordingly, your individualised treatment modality is determined. The initial screening tests include:
Blood & Urine tests:
Urinalysis: It confirms or detects presence of blood, pus, bacteria or stone crystals in urine. These findings are often signs of a stone or an infection.
Urine culture: It helps to detect the presence of a urinary tract infection.
Blood tests: These confirm the suspicion of a kidney infection by revealing abnormalities in the white cell count of your blood.
Urine samples: These determine the levels of stone related chemicals in your urine.
Diagnostic Imaging Techniques: After detecting the infection, your physician will be able to see the stone through techniques such as:
X-ray KUB: A common diagnostic procedure
Ultrasound: It ensures the presence of stone(s) by creating live images of the internal organs.
CT Scan: Builds up a detailed image of the internal organs for diagnosis.
Intravenous Pyelography: A series of X-rays taken to determine the exact location of the stone in the urinary tract after injecting a dye in the vein.
The modality of treatment depends on the size, location and the nature of the urinary stone. Based on the clinical examination and investigations, your physician will suggest an appropriate treatment plan for you. The various types of modalities available at Max Healthcare are:
A) Conversation Therapy (Wait and Watch): Since the majority of stones are small enough to be passed naturally, many physicians suggest the ‘Wait & Watch’ approach. It involves drinking lots of water to increase urinary volume in order to help flush out the stone(s). The incidence of urinary stones is higher in those with dietary intake of calcium (dairy produce) or oxalates (colas, chocolates) and the presence of high mineral content in water. Accordingly, moderate consumption of meat, milk and dairy products is advised while alcohol, tea, coffee, chocolates, cabbage, cauliflower etc. are to be avoided.